• chimpanzees
  • Specifically, the maximal swelling size increases from cycle to cycle for individual female chimpanzees and baboons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baboons for instance, have a maximal swelling lasting approximately 15.1 days, whilst the duration of maximal swelling is 10.9 days in chimpanzees. (wikipedia.org)
  • menstrual cycle
  • These cyclic changes in appearance of the sexual skin reflect the changes of ovarian hormones (estrogen and progestogen) during the female menstrual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • intervals
  • 4). Interbirth intervals were bimodally distributed, with females giving birth on average every 13.9 or 23.2 mo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Female mammals experience delays in the onset of puberty or increase their interbirth intervals in response to environmental conditions that are associated with low abundance and poor quality of foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since adult female orangutans are solitary, interference by other females can be ruled out as influencing their temporary reproductive suppression and facultatively long interbirth intervals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polygynandrous yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in Kenya were far less likely to ovulate or conceive during periods of drought or extreme heat, especially if they live in large groups, resulting in longer interbirth intervals during periods of nutritional and thermal stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • male
  • 2015. The costs of parental and mating effort for male baboons . (upenn.edu)
  • Most social interaction occurs within small groups called one-male units or harems containing one male and up to ten females which the males lead and guard. (wikipedia.org)
  • The male may also abduct a young female by force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Either way, the male will mate with the female when she matures. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Male sexual behaviour, dominance status and female signals. (europa.eu)
  • To investigate the relationship between male sexual behaviour (inspections, mate-guarding, copulations) and female signals, to determine whether males use the different female signals to allocate their mating effort, and whether there are differences between males according to their dominance status. (europa.eu)
  • We used ad libitum records of submissive behaviour to determine female and male dominance ranks. (europa.eu)
  • We recorded all male and female sexual behaviours and vocalisations with a total of 329 hours of observations. (europa.eu)
  • In male baboons concentration of 5alfa-dihydrotestosterone (DiHT) significantly decreased in old animals that led to increase of the ratio estradiol to testosterone plus DiHT. (sens.org)
  • These nonsexual affiliative friendships benefit both the male and female. (wikipedia.org)
  • While sexual coercion does help increase male fitness, it is very often costly to females. (wikipedia.org)
  • These male grasping devices exist to increase the duration of copulation and restrict females from mating with other males. (wikipedia.org)
  • The striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio) is group living with one single breeding male and up to four communally breeding females per group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female hen harriers (Circus cyaneus) responses towards neighbours are more intense, mostly flights rather than calls, than responses towards female floaters (individuals without territories), which in turn were more intense than responses towards male floaters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-male groups, also known as multi-male/multi-female, are a type of social organization where the group contains more than one adult male, more than one adult female, and offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In multi-male groups, there is typically no single male that has full control over the reproductive share of females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Females in multi-male groups will mate multiple times with different top ranking males as well as lower ranking males and occasionally bachelor "lone wolf" males outside of the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent field studies of baboons suggest that male-infant relationships are mediated through affiliations between the males and the infants' mothers, but the degree to which these male-female affiliations are based on prior mating experience (hence, paternity) has not been established. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interspecific variation may result both from differences in the importance of male care to infant survival and from differences in male confidence of paternity, which in turn may relate to seasonal breeding patterns and, in particular, to the presence or absence of conspicuous signs of ovulation in females. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a major cost to living in a multi-male group is the constant competition for mates, mainly among males but also among females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct correlations between measures of social connectedness (which focuses on social grooming) and median survival time for both female and male baboons were modeled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, a pronounced male hierarchy and fierce competition for females happens within the group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Socially, baboons live in harems, with one dominant male and one subordinate male with several females and juveniles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Guinean troops are large multiple-male, multiple-female troops with 50-300 baboons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The harems consist of two to five females which mate with the dominant male. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both male and female gametocytes, the nucleus consists of two portions. (wikipedia.org)
  • dominant
  • Dominant females procure more food, matings, and supporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In basically all major primate taxa, aggression is used by the dominant males when herding females and keeping them away from other males. (wikipedia.org)
  • When traveling as a group, males will lead, females and the young stay safe in the middle, and less-dominant males bring up the rear. (wikipedia.org)
  • In wild savannah baboons, social affiliations are shown to augment fitness by increasing tolerance from more dominant group members and increasing the chance of obtaining aid from conspecifics during instances of within-group contest interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • copulatory
  • To prevent the killing of their offspring, female baboons employ copulatory calls in order to attract other males, allowing multiple mating acts and creating parental confusion among the males involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • These spines are used during copulation to help overcome female resistance and penetrate into their copulatory duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Variables that influence female intrasexual competition include: genetic quality of males, ovarian hormones and hormonal variations and interpersonal dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, current knowledge of the morphological, genetic, and behavioral diversity within Papio is too poor to make any final, comprehensive judgment on this matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • To test the hypothesis that older baboon females (those at or above age 19, the average age of onset of perimenopause in these baboons) naturally develop osteopenia and osteoporosis, we measured BMD via Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and forearm of 395 female baboons aged 7 to 30 years. (asp.org)
  • A test of the dear enemy hypothesis in female New Zealand bellbirds (Anthornis melanura): female neighbors as threats. (wikipedia.org)
  • aggression
  • Such behaviour might include self-promotion tactics and competitor derogation (direct and indirect forms of aggression) towards other females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whilst males may use direct forms of aggression during intrasexual competition females typically compete for access to desired mates through the use of indirect aggression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) exhibited aggression in almost 90 percent of their copulations, including when the females were not resisting. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertility
  • Most females displayed subcaudal sexual swellings which, however, did not reliably indicate female reproductive status or fertility. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It has been shown that when women at their peak fertility, they will have an increased awareness and sensitivity to female intrasexual competition. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to the fact that when women are at their peak fertility, this is the most optimal time for them to mate and produce offsprings. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these high-ranking females also appear to have a higher probability of miscarriages and some high-ranking matrilines have inexplicably low fertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • canine
  • In fact, along with the muzzle, the animal's tail (38-58 cm or 15-23 in) and four-legged gait can make baboons seem very canine. (wikipedia.org)
  • sexual swellings
  • To investigate whether and how other female signals (sexual behaviours, sexual swellings, copulation calls) interact with olfaction to indicate and conceal the timing of ovulation and the fertile period. (europa.eu)
  • First, we spent 10 weeks using positive reinforcement to train the female baboons to accept daily odour (vaginal secretions), cytology (vaginal smears) and sex hormone (saliva) sampling and collection of high quality images of sexual swellings (Figures 3 and 4). (europa.eu)
  • vaginal
  • Female baboons treated with 15 g of UniPron intravaginally showed no detectable adverse effects on clinical chemistry profiles investigated and vaginal histopathology. (jove.com)
  • Repeated intravaginal exposure of female baboons to UniPron did not induce detectable vaginal irritation and there were no detectable histological changes. (jove.com)
  • To conduct the first detailed chemical analyses of vaginal secretions in baboons and to investigate whether and how olfaction is related to female hormone levels (progesterone and estradiol) and the accuracy with which olfactory signals indicate the timing of ovulation and the fertile period. (europa.eu)
  • In total we obtained 1,872 digital images, 936 vaginal odour, 780 cytology and 390 saliva samples for 36 cycles (2-4 per female). (europa.eu)
  • young
  • When consuming attractive luxury items, women are perceived to be more attractive, young, and flirty by other women. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are considered a difficult prey for the leopard, though, which is mostly a threat to young baboons. (wikipedia.org)
  • live
  • Baboons in captivity have been known to live up to 45 years, while in the wild their life expectancy is about 30 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baboons caught up a tree by Kalahari lions (1 of 3) Baboons caught up a tree by Kalahari lions (2 of 3) Baboons caught up a tree by Kalahari lions (3 of 3) Most baboons live in hierarchical troops. (wikipedia.org)
  • threat
  • When with an unattractive rival, women might not necessarily see them posing any threat, as they would feel more attractive in comparison. (wikipedia.org)