• transactional sex
  • Background: 'Transactional sex', is generally defined as a sexual relationship in which money or material goods are exchanged for sex. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Existing research illustrates that the motivations for young women's engagement in transactional sex are complex. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • This PhD study explores the socio-demographic factors that motivate young women to engage in transactional sex and the relationship with HIV or HSV-2 infection. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Using both descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis, I have quantitatively explored the relationship between household socio-economic status and socio-demographics, young women's self- reported engagement in transactional sex, specific characteristics of her consumption patterns and the relationship between transactional sex and HIV and HSV-2 infection. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • I have also used qualitative methods to explore the strategies young women deploy for accessing money or gifts, the role that transactional sex plays in meeting these aspirations and the agency she exhibits in these encounters. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Results: Multivariable analysis shows that young women from low socio-economic status households who engage in transactional sex have higher odds of consuming a combination of both high cost essential items (such as school fees, transport to school and food and groceries) and entertainment related items (such as beer/alcohol, movie tickets and birth control/condoms) compared to young women who do not engage in transactional sex. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • In addition, after adjusting for age and household level socio-demographics, young women who report engaging in transactional sex had significantly increased odds of being HIV seropositive. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • The association between transactional sex and HIV does not appear to be mediated by any of the other dimensions of HIV risk that might ordinarily overlap with transactional sex. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • But, given their current context where economic opportunities are circumscribed, young women use the money received from transactional sex to fill gaps in their needs and wants. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Engagement in transactional sex seems to be driven by poverty and economic need, but also by aspirations within the context of a globalising emerging economy like South Africa. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • In addition, these findings also indicate the subtle position that transactional sex or sexual exchange occupies within a continuum of adolescent sexual relationships in South Africa where sexual exchange occurs within the context of loving peer relationships. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Transactional sex refers to sexual relationships where the giving of gifts or services is an important factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transactional sex is a superset of prostitution, in that the exchange of gifts for sex includes a broader set of (usually non-marital) obligations that do not necessarily involve a predetermined payment or gift, but where there is a definite motivation to benefit materially from the sexual exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the western world, transactional sex occurs ubiquitously in the form of sex in exchange for things of value. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both of these cases, transactional sex presents an increased risk of HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, transactional sex is a factor involved in the spread of AIDS in Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pervasiveness of transactional sex in sub-saharan Africa, common in non-marital relationships across all income categories, is closely linked to socio-cultural expectations of gender whereby a man is expected to act as a provider to their partners and women expect a compensation for 'giving' sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transactional sex is also becoming a vehicle for migration in places where younger women have intimate relationships with older men from for example Europe or North America (Groes-Green 2014). (wikipedia.org)
  • The general consensus among those studying transactional sex is that it is associated with the joint onslaught of poverty and the influence of Western consumerism, the differences in economic power between men and women, and the breakdown of traditional African marriage customs involving bridewealth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negotiating Intimacy: Transactional Sex and Relationships Among Cambodian Professional Girlfriends (PhD dissertation thesis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Factors Influencing Transactional Sex Among Young Men and Women in 12 Sub-Saharan African Countries, POLICY Project, October 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • condom
  • Around 9% of U.S. women reported having an intimate partner who tried to get them pregnant when they did not want to or refused to use a condom. (wikipedia.org)
  • When women did try to negotiate condom use with their abusive partners, 32% said they were verbally threatened, 21% reported physical abuse, and 14% said their partners threatened abandonment. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancy
  • Pregnancy pressure, or pregnancy coercion, is enacted by a woman's sexual partner when he pressures her into having unprotected sex in order to become pregnant, or into continuing or terminating the pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Guttmacher Institute policy analysis states that forcing a woman to terminate a pregnancy she wants or to continue a pregnancy she does not want violates the basic human right of her reproductive health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birth control sabotage is frequently associated with physical or sexual violence, and is a contributor to high pregnancy rates-especially teenage pregnancy rates-among abused, disadvantaged women and teenagers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other risk factors include: Female sex Patient age (under 55 years old) History of light alcohol use History of previous CINV History of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy History of motion sickness Anxiety or depression Anticipation of CINV Several treatment methods are available to help prevent CINV. (wikipedia.org)
  • obesity
  • Reported risk factors include female sex, obesity, elevated calcium*phosphate product, medications such as warfarin, vitamin D derivatives e.g. calcitriol, calcium-based binders, or systemic steroids, protein C or S deficiency, low blood albumin levels, and diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast hypertrophy is classified in one of five ways: as either pubertal (virginal hypertrophy), gestational (gravid macromastia), in adult women without any obvious cause, associated with penicillamine therapy, and associated with extreme obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers
  • The SCOR programs are large Center Programs (P50) that consist of 11 Centers that conduct interdisciplinary research focused on health issues that affect women and examine sex/gender contributions to health and disease. (nih.gov)
  • The centers named CEPARH are open to the public and treats thousands of low-income women per year at no charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult
  • In 2013, Holly Randall was named one of the most influential women in the adult industry by AVN Magazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Premiering in November 2013, she has her own show on Playboy TV called Adult Film School where she hosts and directs amateurs in their own professional sex tape. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • While Asian men have a higher incidence of stroke as compared to women overall, the long- and short-term outcomes in Asian women tend to be poorer. (aku.edu)
  • Similar investigations in other populations/settings are needed to further establish the epidemiologic utility of STARHS for identifying risk factors, in addition to incidence rate estimation. (openaidsjournal.com)
  • Despite these important applications, data on HIV incidence rates and risk factors are scant, # Current Affiliation: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, USA. (openaidsjournal.com)
  • Secrets
  • Jennifer R. Berman, MD, is co-author of the national bestsellers "For Women Only: A Revolutionary Guide to Overcoming Sexual Dysfunction and Reclaiming Your Sex Life" and "Secrets of the Sexually-Satisfied Woman. (voiceamerica.com)
  • Randall is a contributing photographer to many sex guides published by Quiver Books, such as "The Little Book of Kink", "Acrobatic Sex Positions", "Oral Sex Deck", "Hot Sex Tips, Tricks, and Licks", "The Complete Photo Guide to Great Sex", and "The Secrets of Great G-Spot Orgasms and Female Ejaculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Many women wonder why it occurs. (multicare.org)
  • 5 After menopause, which occurs at an average age of 51, a steeper rise in hypertension rates is seen in women. (acc.org)
  • When gigantomastia occurs in young women during puberty, the medical condition is known as juvenile macromastia or juvenile gigantomastia and sometimes as virginal breast hypertrophy or virginal mammary hypertrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macromastia occurs in approximately half of women with aromatase excess syndrome (a condition of hyperestrogenism). (wikipedia.org)
  • condoms
  • Even women with high STI knowledge are more likely to use condoms inconsistently than women with low STI knowledge when there is a high level of fear for abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • A survey conducted by Beth Israel Medical Center in New York city and the North American Syringe Exchange Network, among 126 surveyed SEPs that 77% provided material abuse therapy, 72% provided voluntary counselling and HIV testing, and more than two-thirds provided supplies such as bleach, alcohol pads and male and female condoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality
  • Stroke risk factors, mortality and outcomes differ in developing countries as compared to the developed world. (aku.edu)
  • 1 Of the major modifiable CV risk factors, the complete elimination or control of hypertension resulted in the largest impact on CV mortality in women (38% and 7.3% reduction, respectively) when assessed by NHANES data modeling. (acc.org)
  • One of the more famous of such studies linked a body mass index lower than 18 in women with increased mortality from noncancer, non‚ąícardiovascular disease causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Some highly emetogenic agents and chemotherapy regimens include: Cisplatin Dacarbazine Cyclophosphamide (>1500 mg/m2) Carmustine (>250 mg/m2) Mechlorethamine Streptozocin ABVD MOPP/COPP/BEACOPP CBV VIP BEP AC Some moderately emetogenic agents and regimens include: Carboplatin Methotrexate Doxorubicin/Adriamycin Docetaxel Paclitaxel Etoposide Ifosfamide Cyclophosphamide (‚ȧ1500 mg/m2) CHOP/CHOP-R Besides the type of treatment, personal factors may put a patient at greater risk for CINV. (wikipedia.org)
  • males
  • only a small percentage of sex attractants are produced by males. (wikipedia.org)
  • For males, this life expectancy is at 13 years old which is slightly lower than the female school life expectancy of 14 years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevention
  • An improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying UTIs could result in new approaches to their prevention and reduced numbers of women with infections and the amount of antibiotics use. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study clearly shows the need for a specific health assistance to these women, promoting prevention and education in a holistic approach. (bmj.com)
  • While there are sociocultural barriers that impede the provision of immediate care to these stroke patients, much needs to be done by way of prevention of recurrent stroke and treatment of risk factors. (aku.edu)
  • To date, HIV response has devoted insufficient attention and resources to efforts to address HIV and sex work, with less than 1% of global funding for HIV prevention being spent on HIV and sex work (UNAIDS:2012). (ac.ke)
  • infections
  • Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in an estimated 7-11 million women each year, and the annual costs of caring for these women are thought to approach $1.6 billion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Approximately 20-30% of women suffer from frequent recurrent infections. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Introduction The present research aims to fill a gap in the national and international literature concerning prevalences and factors related to STI (Sexually Transmitted Infections) in Women who Have Sex with Women (WSW). (bmj.com)
  • However, continued political instability, high internal migration rates, high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, and weakened health and social services persist as factors with potential negative impacts on the epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • partially
  • 6-8 Estrogen reduces oxidative stress via lower reactive oxygen species generation and increased antioxidant production and also reduces inflammation via inhibition of pro-fibrotic genes and stimulation of neoangiogenesis.6 Therefore, lower estrogen levels after menopause may partially explain lower arterial compliance and increased risk of hypertension in older women. (acc.org)
  • Through these efforts, women have reported fast upward movement in social class partially due to increased education. (wikipedia.org)
  • adolescent
  • Some adolescent females experience minimal or negligible breast growth until their breasts suddenly grow very rapidly in a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • AIM: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that common genetic factors can explain the association between measures of sex typicality, mating success, and homosexuality in a Western (British) sample of female twins. (uzh.ch)
  • partners
  • Measures of sexual orientation, sex typicality (recalled childhood gender nonconformity), and mating success (number of lifetime sexual partners) were completed. (uzh.ch)
  • RESULTS: We found that masculine women are more likely to be nonheterosexual, report more sexual partners, and, when heterosexual, also report more sexual partners. (uzh.ch)
  • Partners can also forbid women from using family planning or force them to have sex without protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those offering sex may or may not feel affection for their partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many cases, the woman in a transactional sexual relationship may remain faithful to her boyfriend, while he may have multiple sexual partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other cases, the woman may have multiple partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • estrogen
  • 19 Younger women with estrogen imbalance and conditions such as premature ovarian insufficiency, polycystic ovarian disorder and infertility may have an increased risk of developing hypertension. (acc.org)
  • risk factor
  • Since the majority of these individuals did not fall into the classic risk factor groups, Haitians were classified as a separate risk factor group, causing damage to Haiti's image and economy and affecting tourism. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, intravenous drug users and hemophiliacs were never major risk factor groups in Haiti since the start of the epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • UTI-causing bacteria cultured from women with symptomatic UTI and asymptomatic bacteriuria will undergo studies by Dr. Scott Hultgren's group at Washington University in Project 1 to identify unique genes that may help us understand why some bacteria cause symptoms and others do not. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The effect of bacteria causing UTI in these women on host response will also be determined by studies by Dr. Jeff Gordon's laboratory at Washington University in Project 3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For this reason, bacteria are too small to use pheromones as sex attractants on an individual basis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Life
  • If prescription drugs are affecting your sex life, talk to your psychiatrist or therapist about a "drug holiday. (multicare.org)
  • older
  • There are actions girls and women can take if their contraception has been sabotaged: In the US, Plan B (the morning after pill) can be acquired by girls 15 years or older. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transactional sexual relationships are particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, where they often involve relationships between older men and younger women or girls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Years
  • Some women with virginal breast hypertrophy experience breast growth at a steady rate for several years, after which the breasts rapidly develop exceeding normal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Multivariate twin modeling showed that common genetic factors explained the relationship between sexual orientation, sex typicality, and mating success through a shared latent factor. (uzh.ch)
  • If a woman does not comply with her partner's wishes, her partner may act out violently against her, which is a common response. (wikipedia.org)
  • young
  • UTIs in young women result in substantial symptoms, time lost from work, and medical costs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In-depth interviews also showed how young women have a deep-seated need to feel financially independent and have aspirations for lucrative job opportunities in the future, which they hope to achieve through education. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • result
  • Male-produced sex attractants have been called aggregation pheromones, because they usually result in the arrival of both sexes at a calling site and increase the density of conspecifics surrounding the pheromone source. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • Fabre observed and noted how "females who lay their eggs in these fruits deposit these mysterious substances in the vicinity of their clutch to signal to other females of the same species they should clutch elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • citation needed] At the onset of puberty, some females with who have experienced little or no breast development can reportedly reach three or more cup sizes within a few days (see below). (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • In rural Haitian populations where education levels for women are low and many women are economically dependent on their husbands, a correlation between the stability of the occupation of the husband and HIV prevalence in the wives is observed. (wikipedia.org)