• mice
  • Using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology to provide specific and reversible regulation of neuronal activity in mice, we have demonstrated that acute activation of AgRP neurons rapidly and dramatically induces feeding, reduces energy expenditure, and ultimately increases fat stores. (jci.org)
  • regulate
  • With a society, where stress is experienced daily and comfort food is found at every street corner, it will be vital to understand the interactions between the systems that react to stress and regulate feeding behavior to fight the obesity epidemic. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the qualitative aspects of feeding, although they also significantly impact the control of weight and health. (mdpi.com)
  • kinematic
  • Feeding kinematics (seven duration and angular displacement variables), kinematic variance and capture performance were quantified and compared in the first several feedings after birth with a series of feedings 8 weeks later, just prior to metamorphosis. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, the lack of kinematic change through ontogeny indicates that feeding kinematics do not scale with body size, contrary to predictions that movements should be slower in larger animals. (biologists.org)
  • regulation
  • Finally a view is presented that hormonal and vagal signals generated when (comfort) food is consumed will affect the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) brain network important for the response to stress and the regulation of feeding. (biomedsearch.com)
  • humans
  • In a new study published in the open access journal PLoS Biology, Drs. Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, and colleagues now present evidence that the major vector of West Nile virus in the USA, Culex pipiens mosquitoes, change their feeding behavior in the fall from their preferred host, American robins, to humans, resulting in large scale outbreaks of disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • As the summer wore on and robins left their breeding grounds, the probability that humans were fed on increased sevenfold. (eurekalert.org)
  • occur
  • This article highlights data on the changes that occur when glucocorticoids are removed by adrenalectomy, and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In these lesioned animals, the food stimulus appears to elicit a bite command, though the biting behavior itself does not occur. (jneurosci.org)
  • Chickadees occur in stable social groups over much of the year, and birds in social groups often indicate the presence of predators through alarm calling and calling related to mobbing behavior. (openthesis.org)
  • predators
  • The black bear's generalist behavior allowed it to exploit a wider variety of foods and has been given as a reason why, of these three genera, it alone survived climate and vegetative changes through the last ice age while the other more specialized North American predators became extinct. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • Together, these findings demonstrate that AgRP neuron activity is both necessary and sufficient for feeding. (jci.org)
  • Using these seminal contributions as a starting point, we will discuss new findings that expand our understanding of (1) the specific, differentiable motivational processes that are governed by central dopamine and opioid transmission, (2) the manner in which other striatal neuromodulators, specifically acetylcholine, endocannabinoids and adenosine, modulate these motivational processes (including via interactions with opioid systems), and (3) the organization of the cortical-subcortical network that subserves opioid-driven feeding. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • examine
  • The goal of this study was to examine the ability of the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum to modulate its food capture behavior with different sizes and types of food items. (usf.edu)
  • intake
  • The two agricultural engineers investigated existing RFID-based systems to monitor feed intake. (rfidjournal.com)
  • While many solutions were available that can monitor feed intake, those products substantially alter the normal feeding process, thereby potentially influencing the animals' behavior. (rfidjournal.com)
  • The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily determined by the balance between caloric intake and expenditure. (mdpi.com)
  • Non-trimmed (NT) and beak-trimmed (BT) hens showed similar daily feed intake and meal size. (iastate.edu)
  • data
  • Baseline feeding behavior data of this nature may help quantify and ensure the welfare of animals through exercising proper engineering design and/or management considerations. (iastate.edu)
  • study
  • This study quantifies feeding behavior of W-36 White Leghorn laying hens (77 to 80 weeks old) as influenced by the management practice of beak trimming. (iastate.edu)
  • Animal
  • Two agricultural engineers working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have developed an animal feeding behavior-monitoring system that employs radio frequency identification readers, antennas and multiplexers to gauge the health of livestock. (rfidjournal.com)
  • It is intended to capture the unique tag ID number of each animal that puts its head into a feed bunk or trough, and to do so without altering or restricting the way in which the animals feed. (rfidjournal.com)
  • activity
  • A method of inducing feeding behavior and accelerating the feeding activity of fish contained within an impoundment of known volume in order to increase the number of fish taken from such an impoundment by baited hook and line within a given period of time. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • natural
  • Within 4 million years of diverging from other Phyllostomids, vampire bats had evolved all necessary adaptations for blood-feeding, making it one of the fastest examples of natural selection among mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • likely
  • Because the hairy-legged vampire bat feeds on bird blood and it is the ancestral vampire bat, it is likely that all vampire bats initially fed on bird blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • This feeding shift happened, even though the total number of birds at our site increased as other species' offspring joined the population," said Kilpatrick. (eurekalert.org)
  • The leftover feed had a lower crude protein/adjusted crude protein content for the BT birds than that for the NT birds (16.7% vs. 18.7%, P (iastate.edu)
  • In addition, the leftover feed of the BT birds had lower contents in phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and manganese (P (iastate.edu)
  • eight
  • Eight sub-adult specimens of G. cirratum were filmed feeding on two different food types (squid and fish) and sizes (gape size and larger than gape size). (usf.edu)
  • water
  • My water buckets are not right next to the feeding troughs, That way they can still have the water close by but they don't get the feed as wet. (backyardchickens.com)
  • A shift in the feeding behavior of Culex mosquitoes (their larvae amass in standing water, as seen above) helps explain the rising incidence of West Nile virus in North America. (eurekalert.org)
  • control
  • We also discuss her work in overlaying these neuropharmacological effects upon anatomical pathways that link the telencephalon (cortex and basal ganglia) with feeding-control circuits in the hypothalamus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • however
  • However, two aspects of feeding quality relevant to weight loss and weight regain are discussed in this review: macronutrient-based diet selection (what) and feeding pattern (when). (mdpi.com)
  • However, the BT hens tended to spend longer time feeding (3.3 vs. 2.0 h/d, P (iastate.edu)
  • A combination of both, however, incited a small feeding response. (wikipedia.org)
  • lack
  • The relatively limited and fragmented knowledge on these topics indicates that we lack an integrated understanding of the qualitative aspects of feeding behavior. (mdpi.com)
  • common
  • American black bears often mark trees using their teeth and claws as a form of communication with other bears, a behavior common to many species of bears. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Circuits that participate in specific subcomponents of feeding (e.g., gustatory perception, peripheral feedback relevant to satiety and energy balance, reward coding, etc.) are found at all levels of the neural axis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • fish
  • As an example of the adaptations made by reef fish, the yellow tang is a herbivore which feeds on benthic turf algae. (wikipedia.org)