• focal
  • 15, suspected open or depressed skull fracture, sign of fracture at the skull base (raccoon eyes, Battle's sign, hemotympanum, cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the ears or nose), post-traumatic seizure, focal neurological deficit, vomiting, amnesia of events. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • A brain abscess is a focal area of cerebritis secondary to bacterial or, less commonly, fungal or protozoal infection that develops into a collection of pus surrounded by a vascular capsule. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Intrasellar abscesses can simulate pituitary tumors, and focal brain stem abscesses can cause facial weakness or hemiparesis mimicking a stroke. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • mannitol
  • 11,12 Other agents include rheological fluids such as hypertonic saline (HS), which has been shown to have similar effects to mannitol in various intracranial pathologies, but the duration of its action is longer. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13,14 It has been suggested that mannitol may have a detrimental effect on mortality in patients with brain injury when compared with HS. (ahajournals.org)
  • pulmonary edema
  • However, in large volumes, VGE can cause cough, dyspnea and pulmonary edema, and may overwhelm the capacity of the pulmonary capillary network, allowing bubbles to enter the arterial circulation. (underseaoxygenclinic.com)
  • A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema where a process of increased pressure within the pulmonary circulation causes leaking of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the air spaces, the alveoli, of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurological
  • CBF augmentation using hypertensive agents and agents that dilute and expand the plasma volume are already used to reverse ischemic neurological deficits. (ahajournals.org)
  • tissue
  • Open injuries involve penetration of the scalp and skull (and usually the meninges and underlying brain tissue). (merckmanuals.com)
  • A significant increase in brain tissue oxygen persisted for 240 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients with favorable outcome responded better to HS in terms of increased CBF, brain tissue oxygen, and pH and reduced intracranial pressure compared with those with an unfavorable outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • Favorable outcome is associated with an improvement in brain tissue oxygen beyond 210 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,7 Brain tissue oxygen tension (P b O 2 ) reflects the availability of oxygen for oxidative energy production and represents the balance between oxygen supply and demand. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain normal alertness with ICP of 25-40 mmHg (unless tissue shifts at the same time). (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • The brain is relatively poorly supplied by oxygen as a result of mild hypoventilation during the sleeping hours, and also cerebral edema may worsen during the night due to the lying position. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UHMS defines hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) as an intervention in which an individual breathes near 100% oxygen intermittently while inside a hyperbaric chamber that is pressurized to greater than sea level pressure (1 atmosphere absolute, or ATA). (underseaoxygenclinic.com)
  • For clinical purposes, the pressure must equal or exceed 1.4 ATA while breathing near 100% oxygen. (underseaoxygenclinic.com)
  • According to the UHMS definition and the determination of The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and other third party carriers, breathing medical grade 100% oxygen at 1 atmosphere of pressure or exposing isolated parts of the body to 100% oxygen does not constitute HBO2 therapy. (underseaoxygenclinic.com)
  • tumors
  • Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes. (jove.com)
  • Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. (jove.com)
  • fluid
  • Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought to result from direct transmission of pressure to cerebral capillaries with transudation of fluid from the capillaries into the extravascular compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is this swelling of the individual cells of the brain that is seen as the main distinguishing characteristic of cytotoxic edema, as opposed to vasogenic edema, wherein the influx of fluid is typically seen in the interstitial space rather than within the cells themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initial pressure of spinal fluid in a side-lying adult is about 100 to 180 mm of water. (scribd.com)
  • injuries
  • Closed injuries typically occur when the head is struck, strikes an object, or is shaken violently, causing rapid brain acceleration and deceleration. (merckmanuals.com)
  • 6. Stat CT scan of the brain and secondary survey for concomitant injuries. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • deficit
  • Although uncommon, brain abscesses can be associated with death or devastating permanent neurologic deficit, and thus, require prompt diagnosis and treatment. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • depression
  • The term "spreading depression" indicates slowly propagating changes in neuronal electrical potentials, coinciding with or leading to a silencing of brain electrical activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • The body has various mechanisms by which it keeps the ICP stable, with CSF pressures varying by about 1 mmHg in normal adults through shifts in production and absorption of CSF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet, the mechanisms underlying its ability to modulate brain excitability to improve clinical symptoms remains poorly understood 33 . (jove.com)
  • disruption
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)