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  • Posterior Cerebr
  • Results : Infarction of posterior cerebral artery distribution was the most common site of PTCI. (spotidoc.com)
  • Infarction of the occipital lobe after compression of the Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) against the rigid edge of the tentorium by the herniating medial temporal lobe is a wellrecognized mechanism leading to PTCI10,17,22). (spotidoc.com)
  • 5-6 mm), and patients with aneurysms in the posterior circulation (vertebral artery, basilar artery, and posterior cerebral artery) deserve consideration for treatment as opposed to observation and serial CTA or MRA imaging. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • mannitol
  • 11,12 Other agents include rheological fluids such as hypertonic saline (HS), which has been shown to have similar effects to mannitol in various intracranial pathologies, but the duration of its action is longer. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13,14 It has been suggested that mannitol may have a detrimental effect on mortality in patients with brain injury when compared with HS. (ahajournals.org)
  • pulmonary edema
  • However, in large volumes, VGE can cause cough, dyspnea and pulmonary edema, and may overwhelm the capacity of the pulmonary capillary network, allowing bubbles to enter the arterial circulation. (underseaoxygenclinic.com)
  • A further consequence of this process is neurogenic pulmonary edema where a process of increased pressure within the pulmonary circulation causes leaking of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the air spaces, the alveoli, of the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • cranial
  • Certain changes in morphology are associated with cerebral edema: the brain becomes soft and smooth and overfills the cranial vault, gyri (ridges) become flattened, sulci (grooves) become narrowed, and ventricular cavities become compressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cranium and its constituents (blood, CSF, and brain tissue) create a state of volume equilibrium, such that any increase in volume of one of the cranial constituents must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is physical injury to brain tissue that temporarily or permanently impairs brain function. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Open injuries involve penetration of the scalp and skull (and usually the meninges and underlying brain tissue). (merckmanuals.com)
  • A significant increase in brain tissue oxygen persisted for 240 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,7 Brain tissue oxygen tension (P b O 2 ) reflects the availability of oxygen for oxidative energy production and represents the balance between oxygen supply and demand. (ahajournals.org)
  • An increase in volume (in brain tissue, blood, or CSF) does not increase the ICP. (studystack.com)
  • In addition to the above, if mass effect is present with resulting displacement of brain tissue, additional signs may include pupillary dilatation, abducens palsies, and the Cushing's triad. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a rule, patients with normal blood pressure retain normal alertness with ICP of 25-40 mmHg (unless tissue shifts at the same time). (wikipedia.org)
  • Coagulopathy (which frequently accompanies severe head injury, as the body's richest source of tissue plasminogen activator [tPA] is in the brain) should be corrected first. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • cytotoxic
  • In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is this swelling of the individual cells of the brain that is seen as the main distinguishing characteristic of cytotoxic edema, as opposed to vasogenic edema, wherein the influx of fluid is typically seen in the interstitial space rather than within the cells themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • Conclusion : In patients who developed non-malignant PTCI and GCS higher than 5 after head injury, early DHC and duroplasty should be considered, before occurrence of irreversible ischemic brain damage. (spotidoc.com)
  • For determination of clinical and radiographic parameters that may aid in identification of PTCI patients who are at high risk for fatal brain swelling, we conducted an evaluation of early clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated with PTCI including malignant PTCI in consecutive PTCI patients admitted to our institution. (spotidoc.com)
  • This phenomenon, described as "malignant MCA infarction," has been well documented in clinical observations and in autopsy studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 5 6 Hacke et al 2 reported a mortality rate of 78% in patients who developed a malignant hemispheric infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • neurological
  • CBF augmentation using hypertensive agents and agents that dilute and expand the plasma volume are already used to reverse ischemic neurological deficits. (ahajournals.org)
  • oxygen
  • The brain is relatively poorly supplied by oxygen as a result of mild hypoventilation during the sleeping hours, and also cerebral edema may worsen during the night due to the lying position. (wikipedia.org)
  • The areas of the brain that do not receive adequate blood and oxygen can suffer irreparable injury, leading to permanent brain damage or death . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The UHMS defines hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) as an intervention in which an individual breathes near 100% oxygen intermittently while inside a hyperbaric chamber that is pressurized to greater than sea level pressure (1 atmosphere absolute, or ATA). (underseaoxygenclinic.com)
  • For clinical purposes, the pressure must equal or exceed 1.4 ATA while breathing near 100% oxygen. (underseaoxygenclinic.com)
  • According to the UHMS definition and the determination of The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and other third party carriers, breathing medical grade 100% oxygen at 1 atmosphere of pressure or exposing isolated parts of the body to 100% oxygen does not constitute HBO2 therapy. (underseaoxygenclinic.com)
  • Injuries
  • Closed injuries typically occur when the head is struck, strikes an object, or is shaken violently, causing rapid brain acceleration and deceleration. (merckmanuals.com)
  • We conducted a retrospective review of 830 patients with traumatic brain injuries, who underwent treatment between February 2003 and August 2005 at our hospital. (spotidoc.com)
  • According to annual figures compiled by the Brain Injury Association, approximately 373,000 people are hospitalized, more than 56,000 people die, and 99,000 survive with permanent disabilities due to traumatic brain injuries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 6. Stat CT scan of the brain and secondary survey for concomitant injuries. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Vein
  • The femoral artery and vein were catheterized to monitor blood pressure and blood gases and to administer contrast agent. (ahajournals.org)
  • Air embolism can occur during procedures in which the surgical site is under pressure (e.g. laparoscopy, transurethral surgery, vitrectomy, endoscopic vein harvesting and hysteroscopy). (underseaoxygenclinic.com)
  • encephalitis
  • Any inflammation of the brain constitutes encephalitis, whether caused by direct invasion of the brain by an infectious agent (primary encephalitis), by immune response to an infectious process (parainfectious or post-infectious encephalitis), or by a process with no known connection to an infectious etiology (e.g., auto-immune encephalitis or paraneoplastic encephalitis). (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • surgical
  • Massive VGE can occur due to passive entry of air into surgical wounds that are elevated above the level of the heart (such that the pressure in adjacent veins is subatmospheric). (underseaoxygenclinic.com)
  • blood
  • Venous circulation contributes to half of the brain circulation and about 70% of the blood in the brain is venous blood. (springer.com)
  • 16,17 A 20% to 50% increase in CBF in ischemic regions was seen without compromising blood flow to other areas. (ahajournals.org)
  • The blood pressure produced by chest compressions is inadequate to perfuse the brain when ICP is high. (blogspot.com)
  • Altered metabolism may cause brain cells to retain water, and dilution of the blood plasma may cause excess water to move into brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • the pressure needed to ensure blood flow to the brain. (studystack.com)
  • The exact role of high blood pressure is somewhat unclear, but since it does seem linked to the formation of aneurysms, it may be considered an indirect risk factor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Combined treatment yields no additional benefit compared with single treatment, probably because of early blood-brain barrier breakdown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Medications such as labetalol may be required to lower the blood pressure until repair can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • intraocular
  • Intraocular hemorrhage (bleeding into the eyeball) may occur in response to the raised pressure: subhyaloid hemorrhage (bleeding under the hyaloid membrane, which envelops the vitreous body of the eye) and vitreous hemorrhage may be visible on fundoscopy. (wikipedia.org)