• species
  • Traditional methods of systematics based on morphology of vegetative cells, sexual states, physiological responses to fermentation and growth tests can assign fungal species to particular genera and families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, L. loboi is a sister taxon with a close phylogenetic relationship to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , which is a highly pathogenic fungal species also endemic in Latin American countries [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Powdery mildew is a common fungal disease of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Background: The impact of gene annotation quality on functional and comparative genomics makes gene prediction an important process, particularly in non-model species, including many fungi. (edu.au)
  • Sets of homologous protein sequences are rarely complete with respect to the fungal species of interest and are often small or unreliable, especially when closely related species have not been sequenced or annotated in detail. (edu.au)
  • The species is very difficult to propagate from hardwood cuttings, even under mist, often rooting but failing to develop foliage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal species within the phylum Basidiomycetes, including mushroom-forming species, experience a more complex reproductive cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooney and Emerson provided taxonomic descriptions of the 13 known fungal species during WWII, while studying alternate sources of rubber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tsiklinskaya originally isolated and described the species, but failed to indicate the size of aleuriospores and didn't include drawings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birch dieback is one of a number of emerging fungal diseases affecting various species of tree in Western Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • He advocates improving the diversity of the gene pool, planting mixed stands of trees and better controlling the international trade in tree species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the new species have only recently been recognized, much remains to be learned about their relative clinical importance, comparative virulence, epidemiology, and anti-fungal drug susceptibilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most members of the Mucorales, Apophysomyces species often fail to sporulate under standard clinical laboratory culture conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the species was devastated by the chestnut blight, a fungal disease, it was one of the most important forest trees throughout its range, and was considered the finest chestnut tree in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • anti-fungal
  • Casanova and his team say that further research on CARD9 will examine its exact role in human anti-fungal immunity, tracing the signaling pathways in different cell types that give an individual the ability to fight off an infection. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The tree was comprehensively evaluated in the Netherlands in the 1950s as a potential source of anti-fungal genes for use in the Dutch elm hybridization programme, but was found intolerant of all but the most sheltered and humid conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Successful treatment depends on early detection of infection, surgical debridement of necrotic tissues, and anti-fungal therapy with drugs such as posaconazole and amphotericin B. Members of the order Mucorales generally infect immunocompromised patients but A. variabilis infections tend to occur in immunocompetent healthy hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Identification and further characterization of the PSS1 gene would provide further insights into a new form of nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis, which could be utilized in improving resistance of soybean to two serious pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • proteins
  • Other data obtained here demonstrate that MLO proteins negatively regulate transcriptional activation of defense-related genes in response to powdery mildew challenge as well as upon MAMP treatment, implicating MLO functions in MAMP-triggered defense signaling. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Both are previously uncharacterized proteins specific to Ascomycetes, with SAD-4 having a range that spans several fungal classes and SAD-5 seemingly restricted to a single order. (genetics.org)
  • As these methods do not require sets of homologous proteins, improving gene prediction from these resources is of benefit to fungal researchers. (edu.au)
  • The results of these experiments led directly to the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis that specific genes code for specific proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • However, significant plasmid and genomic DNA rearrangements were observed at many of the identified genomic loci where plasmid integration had occurred, thus suggesting that the use of electroporation to build libraries of A. fumigatus insertional mutants has relatively limited value and cannot be used in an exhaustive search of essential genes. (genetics.org)
  • Correct predictions are made despite transcript assembly problems, including those caused by overlap between the transcripts of adjacent gene loci. (edu.au)
  • analysed three loci: the H3 gene, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA gene, and the D1 and D2 domains of the 28S rRNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • Both are inserted in the 5' untranslated region of the previously uncharacterized gene CG12120, a putative homolog of fungal isopenicillin-N N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.164). (nih.gov)
  • organisms
  • Today single-gene phylogenies (especially 18S ribosomal DNA-based ones) have established many of the accepted relationships between fungal organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another possibility may arise from somatic fusion: there are multicellular life-styles where there are few if any physical barriers to the intermingling of cells (for example: sponges, fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against invasion, opportunities for cellular exchange occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • That's the message of a new study out of the Columbia University Medical Center, where researchers are warning scientists that the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology results in unintended mutations that could go undetected. (naturalnews.com)
  • Mutations in same the gene usually result in a mutant phenotype when present together. (coursehero.com)
  • Mutations in different genes complement. (coursehero.com)
  • We characterized two tan-like P-element insertions that failed to complement classical tan mutations.Both P insertions showed abnormally low transcription of the CG12120 mRNA.We conclude that D. melanogaster CG12120 corresponds to tan. (nih.gov)
  • We characterized two tan-like P-element insertions that failed to complement classical tan mutations. (nih.gov)
  • It is due to mutations in the PAH gene which results in low levels of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKU is characterized by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the gene for the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), rendering it nonfunctional. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • All this research should pave the way for the development of novel therapeutics to boost host response where the genes are failing. (brighthub.com)
  • An alternative strategy for finding novel antifungal targets might be in the identification of genes that are essential for fungal growth under in vitro growth conditions ( R eich 2000 ). (genetics.org)
  • Association analyses of these 316 genes revealed three novel AVR genes, AVR-Pia , AVR-Pii , and AVR-Pik/km/kp , corresponding to five previously known AVR genes, whose products are recognized inside rice cells possessing the cognate R genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Molecular
  • As we discover more of these single-gene, inborn immune system defects, we can give susceptible individuals with a family history of the disease a chance to prevent it, through molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, as well as targeted treatments that restore a poor immune response ," says Casanova, who is senior attending physician at the Rockefeller University Hospital. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Both genes appear to be predominantly expressed in the sexual phase, as molecular study combined with analysis of publically available mRNA-seq datasets failed to detect significant expression of them in the vegetative tissue. (genetics.org)
  • effector
  • Remarkably, a total of 1.68 Mb regions, comprising 316 candidate effector genes, were present in Ina168 but absent in the assembled sequence of isolate 70-15. (plantcell.org)
  • Immortalized cell line models fail to recapitulate all the effector functions of primary cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • homology
  • however, the gp43 gene sequences derived from the present cases showed 94.1% homology to P. brasiliensis and 84.1% to L. loboi . (hindawi.com)
  • conjugation
  • Gene transfer systems that have been extensively studied in bacteria include genetic transformation, conjugation and transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • N. tetrasperma mating-type chromosomes resemble the sex chromosomes in animals in failing to recombine over most of their length. (genetics.org)
  • enzyme
  • This intracellular gliotoxin activates the transcription factor GliZ, facilitating gli gene cluster expression, and an enzyme called GtmA. (wikipedia.org)
  • often fail
  • What they often fail to mention, however, is the fact that 30 of the 32 pigs they subjected to the technique died prematurely , showing that even the simplest of genetic tweaks can have a big impact on the animal throughout its lifetime. (naturalnews.com)
  • Untreated children often fail to attain early developmental milestones, develop microcephaly, and demonstrate progressive impairment of cerebral function. (wikipedia.org)
  • single-gene
  • To date, most fungal phylogenies have been derived from single gene comparisons, or from concatenated alignments of a small number of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Supertree methods were employed to derive phylogenies from 4,805 single gene families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, single-gene analyses are dependent on the gene having an evolutionary history that reflects that of the entire organism, an assumption that is not always true. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An alternative approach to a single gene phylogeny is to combine all available phylogenetic data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mutation
  • The scientists discovered that if there is a mutation in any one of these genes then the body struggles to control the fungi. (brighthub.com)
  • interactions
  • Understanding the function of M. oryzae effectors, their host targets, and AVR-R gene interactions is important to devise effective means to control the disease. (plantcell.org)
  • Modified genetic ratios reveal gene interactions, including epistasis. (coursehero.com)
  • disease
  • In fact, Chinese scientists say they were the first to make a type of wheat that is resistant to a fungal disease. (naturalnews.com)
  • Cherry leaf spot is a fungal disease which infects cherries and plums. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the disease has significantly infected the leaves enough in early spring it is possible that the fruit will fail to mature in that year. (wikipedia.org)
  • wheat
  • those conditions arose when farmers planted a newly-developed, high-yield variety of wheat that only decades later was found to lack a gene resistant to blast. (undark.org)
  • clinical
  • We diagnosed 2 cases of lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins captured simultaneously at the same coast within Japanese territory on the basis of clinical characteristics, cytology, histopathology, immunological tests, and detection of partial sequences of a 43 kDa glycoprotein coding gene ( gp43 ) with a nested-PCR system. (hindawi.com)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of 18S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of fungal aetiology of microbial keratitis was determined in thirty patients with clinical diagnosis of microbial keratitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its diagnosis remains a difficult problem, although the history and clinical appearance may suggest fungal keratitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • whereas
  • AVR-Pia and AVR-Pii have evolved by gene gain/loss processes, whereas AVR-Pik/km/kp has evolved by nucleotide substitutions and gene gain/loss. (plantcell.org)
  • sequences
  • Our approach capitalises on the high quality of fungal transcript assemblies by incorporating predictions made directly from transcript sequences. (edu.au)
  • response
  • When both these genes are functioning normally Dectin-1 senses the presence of fungi and prompts the immune cells to send signals and mount a response. (brighthub.com)
  • host
  • However, there is no evidence of the gene retaining its function after the host-to-parasite horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Gene transfer and genetic exchange have been studied in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium volcanii and the hyperthermophilic archaeons Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. (wikipedia.org)