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  • saccades
  • In Gaucher's disease a progressive horizontal gaze palsy, in abetalipoproteinemia a particular type of internuclear ophthalmoplegia with nystagmus of the adducting eye and in Wilson's disease slowing of saccades may be observed. (le.ac.uk)
  • target
  • If there is no information that eye position has changed after the first saccade, the subject would make a diagonal saccade corresponding to the location of the second target with respect to the original starting fixation position ( Figure 1A , second saccade without CD). (arvojournals.org)
  • fixation
  • Although we have the impression that we can process the entire visual field in a single fixation, in reality we would be unable to fully process the information outside of foveal vision if we were unable to move our eyes (Rayner, 1978, 1998). (scholarpedia.org)
  • A summary of the average amount of time spent on each fixation and the average distance the eyes move in reading, visual search, and scene perception are shown in Table 1. (scholarpedia.org)
  • This conclusion was based on the relatively long latencies of eye movements (or reaction time of the eyes) and the large variability in the fixation time measures. (scholarpedia.org)
  • When fixated, the eye rests for about .25 seconds (250 milliseconds) on a content word and takes in a span of about seven to nine letters to the right of the fixation and three to four letters to the left before it jumps over to the next fixation point. (readingrockets.org)
  • More letters are processed to the right of the fixation if the eye is scanning from left to right. (readingrockets.org)
  • Conjugate eye movement refers to motor coordination of the eyes that allows for bilateral fixation on a single object. (wikipedia.org)
  • fixate
  • The problem of moving the eyes to fixate a new target in space (or indeed any other movement) entails two separate issues: controlling the amplitude of movement (how far), and controlling the direction of the movement (which way). (nih.gov)
  • There are particular factors which affect where eye movements fixate upon, these include bottom-up factors inherent to the stimulus, and top-down factors inherent to the viewer. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurology
  • Horizontal eye movement networks in primates as revealed by retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus: differences in monosynaptic input to "slow" and "fast" abducens motoneurons," Journal of Comparative Neurology , vol. 498, no. 6, pp. 762-785, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • retina
  • Because of acuity limitations in the retina, eye movements are necessary for processing the details of the array. (scholarpedia.org)
  • While we are reading or searching a visual array for a target or simply looking at a new scene, our eyes move every 200-350 ms. These eye movements serve to move the fovea (the high resolution part of the retina encompassing 2 degrees at the center of the visual field) to an area of interest in order to process it in greater detail. (scholarpedia.org)
  • oblique
  • Activation of the gaze centers in concert results in oblique movements whose trajectories are specified by the relative contribution of each center. (nih.gov)
  • physiological
  • At first, the chief concern was to describe the eye as a physiological and mechanical moving object, the most serious attempt being Hermann von Helmholtz 's major work Handbook of physiological optics (1866). (wikipedia.org)
  • The physiological approach was gradually superseded by interest in the psychological aspects of visual input, in eye movement as a functional component of visual tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • scene perception
  • Although eye movements have been examined for some time, it has only been in the last few decades that their measurement has led to important discoveries about psychological processes that occur during such tasks as reading, visual search , and scene perception. (scholarpedia.org)
  • however, in tasks like reading, visual search, and scene perception, covert attention and overt attention (the exact eye location) are tightly linked. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Eye movement characteristics in reading, scene perception, and visual search. (scholarpedia.org)
  • EMDR
  • As early as 1999, EMDR has been a controversial approach within the psychological community, and a 2000 review argued that the eye movements did not play a central role, that the mechanisms of eye movements were speculative, and that the theory leading to the practice was not falsifiable and therefore not amenable to scientific inquiry. (wikipedia.org)
  • EMDR Treatment: Less Than Meets the Eye? (dmoztools.net)
  • lateral rectus
  • As shown in Figure 20.6 , for instance, neurons in the abducens nucleus fire a burst of action potentials prior to abducting the eye (by causing the lateral rectus muscle to contract) and are silent when the eye is adducted. (nih.gov)
  • move
  • While it is true that we can move our attention independently of where the eyes are fixated, it does not seem to be the case in everyday viewing. (scholarpedia.org)
  • According to Dr Falck-Ytter, people move their eyes several times a second when awake, far too often for it to be due exclusively to conscious decision. (news-medical.net)
  • Before you attempt to translate expressions and moods through the eyes in your drawings, you need to understand how the eyes are positioned and how they move in the head. (artistsnetwork.com)
  • Skilled readers move their eyes during reading on the average of every quarter of a second. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eye movements can be guided anticipatorily by linguistic input, where if an item in the scene is presented verbally, the listener will be more likely to move their visual focus to that object (Staub, Abott & Bogartz, 2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • The least-effort way to refoveate is to move the misaligned eye only. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead Hering's law predicts that because both eyes must move by equal amounts, a combination of conjunctive and disjunctive eye movements is required to refoveate the target point. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus Hering's law, in its original formulation, simply cannot be correct as it would lead to situations where the eyes would move by different amounts, something on which both agreed never happens. (wikipedia.org)
  • vestibular
  • Vision, audition and somatosensation provide information about objects in the world, information about self movement is provided through the vestibular and proprioceptive systems. (rochester.edu)
  • Skip
  • Eye movement studies have shown that mature, proficient readers do not skip words, use context to process words, or bypass phonics in establishing word recognition. (readingrockets.org)
  • abnormal
  • It has been found through several experiments that low levels of stage 3 sleep are found in about 40-50% of people with acute and chronic schizophrenia who typically portray abnormal non-rapid eye movement sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • bilateral
  • The therapy includes having the patient recall distressing images while receiving one of several types of bilateral sensory input, such as side-to-side eye movements or hand tapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment involves standardized procedures that include focusing simultaneously on (a) spontaneous associations of traumatic images, thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations and (b) bilateral stimulation that is most commonly in the form of repeated eye movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guidance
  • In bottom-up factors, eye guidance can be affected by the local contrast or salience of features in an image (Itti & Koch, 2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • Control
  • These studies will facilitate a clearer understanding of the neural mechanisms that mediate the control of coordinated movements. (rochester.edu)
  • E. Brunamonti, N. W. D. Thomas, and M. Paré, "The activity patterns of lateral intraparietal area neurons is not sufficient to control visually guided saccadic eye movements," Program No. 855.18. (hindawi.com)
  • In this case, the reflexes (such as reflex shifting the eyes to a moving light) are intact, though the voluntary control is obliterated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helmholtz's point of view is today often caricatured as a chameleon-like, independent, control of the eyes although Helmholtz never defended that theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • gaze
  • Head, eye, and gaze position are plotted as functions of time during a 60 degree gaze shift composed of coordinated movements of the eyes and head. (rochester.edu)
  • The head contributed ~10 degrees to the overall change in gaze direction during this movement. (rochester.edu)
  • Gaze position in space remains constant during this epoch due to equal and opposite eye counter-rotation mediated through the VOR. (rochester.edu)
  • involves
  • The musculoskeletal response required to play a musical instrument involves substantial body movement, usually of the hands, arms and torso. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influence
  • How we explore our world with our eyes can influence everything from social interaction to learning. (news-medical.net)
  • There are several factors which influence eye movement in scene viewing, both the task and knowledge of the viewer (top-down factors), and the properties of the image being viewed (bottom-up factors). (wikipedia.org)
  • duration
  • The amplitude of the movement is correlated with the duration of the burst of action potentials in the abducens neuron . (nih.gov)
  • moods
  • For example, these two images have the same body position and mouth but because of the…eyes, these images convey two different moods. (lynda.com)
  • sensory
  • We must be able to gather accurate sensory information about our surroundings, distinguish our movements from the movements of objects in the world, and coordinate our own movements in order to orient, and navigate smoothly through a complex setting. (rochester.edu)
  • research
  • There appear to be no records of eye movement research until the early 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this article we make a survey on financial security degree of capital movement in China, which rests on Probability Analytic Method in the economic security research and carries on several capital movement index commonly used in foreign. (dict.cn)
  • Thus, the improvement of music sight reading and the differences between skilled and unskilled readers have always been of prime importance to research into eye movement in music reading, whereas research into eye movement in language reading has been more concerned with the development of a unified psychological model of the reading process. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is therefore unsurprising that most research into eye movement in music reading has aimed to compare the eye movement patterns of the skilled and the unskilled. (wikipedia.org)
  • vision
  • For example, Ibn al Haytham , a medical man in 11th-century Egypt, is reported to have written of reading in terms of a series of quick movements and to have realised that readers use peripheral as well as central vision . (wikipedia.org)
  • Eye movement can reflect selection mode of vision information. (dict.cn)
  • M. Land and B. Tatler, Looking and Acting: Vision and Eye Movements in Natural Behaviour , Oxford University Press, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • reflection
  • The first devices for tracking eye movement took two main forms: those that relied on a mechanical connection between participant and recording instrument, and those in which light or some other form of electromagnetic energy was directed at the participant's eyes and its reflection measured and recorded. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • These studies have typically reflected a curiosity among performing musicians about a central process in their craft, and a hope that investigating eye movement might help in the development of more effective methods of training musicians' sight reading skills. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite some 30 studies in this area over the past 70 years, little is known about the underlying patterns of eye movement in music reading. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linguistic
  • Eye movements can be guided anticipatorily by linguistic input, where if an item in the scene is presented verbally, the listener will be more likely to move their visual focus to that object (Staub, Abott & Bogartz, 2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • focal
  • The major hurdle was dealing with the fact that a driver's eyes will jump from one focal point to another frequently during normal driving. (motorauthority.com)
  • typically
  • These studies have typically reflected a curiosity among performing musicians about a central process in their craft, and a hope that investigating eye movement might help in the development of more effective methods of training musicians' sight reading skills. (wikipedia.org)
  • extends
  • This extends from simple limb twitches to more complex integrated movement, in which people appear to be unconsciously acting out their dreams. (wikipedia.org)
  • look
  • In 2000 Land and a colleague reported their finding that within 200 milliseconds after a ball leaves a cricket bowler's hand, the best batsmen will take their eyes off the ball and look ahead to the point where they have calculated it will bounce (see also Land & McLeod (2000) in bibliography). (wikipedia.org)