• genes
  • Similar patterning during embryological development can be observed in "basal chordates or ascidians," in which organization of the central nervous system in ascidian larvae are also controlled by fibroblast growth factor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conservation of a large protein domain in the segmentation gene paired and in functionally related genes of Drosophila. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure of two genes at the gooseberry locus related to the paired gene and their spatial expression during Drosophila embryogenesis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The aim of the present study was to infer functions of previously uncharacterized lineage-specific genes (LSGs) using co-expression, promoter, pathway and network analysis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Over-represented composite transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in promoters of clustered LSGs and known genes were then identified computationally. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Genes that are highly co-expressed are often regulated by common transcription factor(s), forming sub-networks of genes with a common function [ 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In evolutionary developmental biology, Paired box (Pax) genes are a family of genes coding for tissue specific transcription factors containing a paired domain and usually a partial, or in the case of four family members (PAX3, PAX4, PAX6 and PAX7), a complete homeodomain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthologous genes exist throughout the Metazoa, including extensive study of the ectopic expression in Drosophila using murine Pax6. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper, we have defined the expression of several classes of genes expressed in restricted d/v domains in the intermediate region (IR) of the mouse spinal cord, in which most interneurons are generated. (jneurosci.org)
  • The domains of expression of a number of different classes of genes share similar boundaries, indicating that there could be a basic subdivision of the ventral IR into four distinct regions. (jneurosci.org)
  • To gain further insight into the role of Pax2 in mid-hindbrain patterning, we searched for novel Pax2-regulated genes by cDNA microarray analysis of FACS-sorted GFP + mid-hindbrain cells from wild-type and Pax2 -/- embryos carrying a Pax2 GFP BAC transgene. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we report the identification of five genes that depend on Pax2 function for their expression in the mid-hindbrain boundary region. (biologists.org)
  • These genes code for the transcription factors En2 and Brn1 (Pou3f3), the intracellular signaling modifiers Sef and Tapp1, and the non-coding RNA Ncrms . (biologists.org)
  • In the presence of bound Wnt ligands, degradation is prevented and β-catenin is free to translocate to the nucleus and combine with transcription factors TCF/LEF to initiate the transcription of Wnt target genes ( Logan and Nusse, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We cloned two genes developmentally critical in bilaterian animals (Pax6 and Zic), together with housekeeping genes (actin, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, and ATP synthase beta subunit) from a dicyemid to reveal whether their molecular phylogeny supported the "simplification" hypothesis, and to clarify evolutionary changes in dicyemid gene structure and expression profiles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence and expression of the two tool-kit genes ( Pax6 and Zic ) in Dicyema suggests that they can be very versatile genes even required for the highly reduced bilaterian like Dicyema . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We compared the pattern of LjPax6 expression with that of other brain-specific regulatory genes, including LjOtxA , LjPax2/5/8 , LjDlx1/6 , LjEmx and LjTTF1 . (biologists.org)
  • Studies of families of regulatory genes are of particular interest in the field of evolutionary developmental biology, as they provide clues to the gene duplication events, as well as the functional diversity, associated with the evolution of the body plan. (biologists.org)
  • It has often been emphasized that patterns of regulatory gene expression, especially those of the homeobox genes, are surprisingly conserved in distantly related animals, indicating the early establishment of the morphological ground plan in metazoans. (biologists.org)
  • Among these regulatory genes, the Pax gene family encodes transcription factors that are characterized by paired-type homeodomains and paired domains ( Goulding, 1992 ). (biologists.org)
  • MLL binds directly to proximal promoter sequences but not to other regions of the Hox c8 locus, including the 5' and 3' enhancer sequences, suggesting that MLL-dependent regulatory elements in mammalian Hox genes are organized differently from those in Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • Collectively, these experiments underscore the importance of a concerted series of histone and DNA modifications in the regulation and maintenance of target genes during mammalian development and provide a framework for comparing mechanisms of epigenetic forms of gene regulation by MLL and MLL fusion proteins (Milne, 2002). (sdbonline.org)
  • The expression pattern of Xemx1 and Xemx2 genes in Xenopus laevis have been isolated and characterized. (sdbonline.org)
  • Xemx genes are the homologs of mouse Emx genes, related to Drosophila empty spiracles . (sdbonline.org)
  • Cell culture experiments indicate that Otx1 may activate transcription of the growth hormone (GH), follicle-stimulating hormone (betaFSH), luteinizing hormone (betaLH) and (alpha)-glycoprotein subunit ([alpha]GSU) genes. (sdbonline.org)
  • Expression patterns of related hypothalamic and pituitary cell type restricted genes, growth hormone releasing hormone (GRH), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and their pituitary receptors (GRHR and GnRHR) suggest that, in Otx1 (-/-) mice, hypothalamic and pituitary cells of the somatotropic and gonadotropic lineages appear unaltered. (sdbonline.org)
  • The Otx1 and Otx2 genes are two murine orthologues of the Orthodenticle ( Otd ) gene in Drosophila. (sdbonline.org)
  • Transcription factors of the Pax family bind to their target genes via the paired domain which is known to be composed of two subdomains each recognizing distinct half‐sites in adjacent major grooves of the DNA helix. (embopress.org)
  • We report that proneural genes have an intricate pattern of expression in the ventricular zone of the ventral midbrain, where mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons are generated. (biologists.org)
  • eyeless
  • PAX6 (eyeless) is the most researched and appears throughout the literature as a "master control" gene for the development of eyes and sensory organs, certain neural and epidermal tissues as well as other homologous structures, usually derived from ectodermal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pax6
  • Pax6 is a transcription factor with important functions in eye and nasal development. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Pax6 gene plays a developmental role in various metazoans as the master regulatory gene for eye patterning. (biologists.org)
  • Because the amphioxus has no neuromeres, an understanding of Pax6 expression in the agnathans is crucial for an insight into the origin of neuromerism in the vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • In the head surface ectoderm of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), Pax6 expression is restricted to the olfactory placode, the eye placode and the anterior hypophysis ( Walther and Gruss, 1991 ), indicating its function in the establishment of these cell types. (biologists.org)
  • Expression of Pax6 in the CNS is restricted to the telencephalon, the diencephalon and the myelencephalon, the regions that constitute the developmental compartments of the brain. (biologists.org)
  • Some aspects of Pax gene function have been highly conserved in evolution, as is best exemplified by Pax6 . (embopress.org)
  • neural
  • A growing body of data suggests that cell fates along the d/v axis of the spinal cord are controlled in part by secreted factors emanating from the ventral midline and dorsal non-neural ectoderm. (jneurosci.org)
  • Helix 1 of the Mash1 HLH domain is necessary for Mash1 to be able to promote neuronal differentiation, and is sufficient to confer this activity to the non-neural bHLH factor MyoD. (biologists.org)
  • Essas esferas podem ser usados ​​para induzir a expressão do gene espacialmente restrita no desenvolvimento do tecido neural, tais como explantes prosencéfalo. (jove.com)
  • cDNA
  • In mutant mice in which both copies of the Otx1 gene are replaced with a human Otx2 cDNA ( hOtx2(1)/ hOtx2(1) ), most of the defects associated with Otx1-/- mutants are rescued. (sdbonline.org)
  • Otx2
  • Pax2 is the earliest known gene to be expressed across the Otx2-Gbx2 boundary. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, within the inner ear, hOtx2 expression fails to rescue the lateral canal and ampulla phenotypes, and only variable rescues are observed in regions where both Otx1 and Otx2 are normally expressed. (sdbonline.org)
  • distinct
  • Together, these data defined novel functions of Pax2 in the establishment of distinct transcriptional programs and in the control of intracellular signaling during mid-hindbrain development. (biologists.org)
  • A leukemogenic MLL fusion protein that activates Hox expression had no effect on histone methylation, suggesting a distinct mechanism for gene regulation by MLL and MLL fusion proteins (Milne, 2002). (sdbonline.org)
  • Although both factors induce neuronal differentiation, each factor has a distinct activity in the type of dorsal interneuron that forms, with overexpression of Math1 increasing dI1 interneurons, and Mash1 increasing dI3 interneurons. (biologists.org)
  • neurogenesis
  • This process is regulated by the activity of transcription factors with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motifs, including the neurogenin and Mash1 proneural factors involved in initiating neurogenesis, and other bHLH factors, such as Neurod, that are involved in terminal neuronal differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • kidney
  • Transgene expression of the mid-hindbrain and developing kidney is directed by Pax2. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Pax2 is highly expressed in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), Wilms' tumor (WT), and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The OSR1 and OSR2 transcription factors participate in the normal development of body parts such as the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal kidney development, activation of the Pax2-Eya1-Hox11 complex and subsequent activation of Six2 and Gdnf expression allows for branching of the ureteric bud and maintenance of the nephron-forming cap mesenchyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three stages of kidney formation are affected in mice lacking Osr1 expression and are similar to mice with reduced Wt1 and Pax2 expression - the Wollfian duct is abnormal, there are fewer mesonephric tubules and the kidney-forming metanephros and gonads are missing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of inductive signals from the ureteric bud combined with a downstream reduction in Pax2 expression results in apoptosis and agenesis of the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAX2 has been identified with kidney and optic nerve development. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • Because the CEH-2 homeodomain is well conserved, an assay was performed to see whether ceh-2 can rescue ems - brain defects in Drosophila, despite the apparent differences in biological roles. (sdbonline.org)
  • embryonic
  • Expression of Osr1 in the limb buds is initially restricted to the mesenchyme immediately below the endoderm, but shifts anteriorly and proximally by embryonic day 11.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeted disruption of the mouse Sonic hedgehog gene shows that Shh plays a critical role in patterning of embryonic tussues, including the brain and spinal cord, the axial skeleton and limbs. (sdbonline.org)
  • Mash1
  • In contrast, helix 2 of Math1, and both helix 1 and 2 of Mash1, are the domains required for the neuronal specification activities of these factors. (biologists.org)
  • Mash1 and Math1 belong to Class II, as do other tissue-specific bHLH factors such as the myogenic factor MyoD. (biologists.org)
  • regulation
  • Although this does not mean that physiological and morphological changes cannot be caused by mutations in coding exons [ 6 , 7 ], many characteristics of enhancers and other cis -regulatory regions indicate that organismal evolution is mostly driven by changes in gene regulation, as theorized over 40 years ago [ 1 , 8 , 9 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • enhancer
  • In the introduction to this Theme Issue, we start by defining the general properties of transcriptional enhancers, such as modularity and the coexistence of tight sequence conservation with transcription factor-binding site shuffling as different mechanisms that maintain the enhancer grammar over evolutionary time. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this "off" state, T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF) is inactive due to its interaction with the repressor Groucho. (frontiersin.org)
  • regulatory
  • The paired domain is an approximately 126 amino acid DNA-binding domain, which is found in eukaryotic transcription regulatory proteins involved in embryogenesis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Although the relatively rigid genetic code that determines the amino acid sequence of proteins was deciphered soon after the discovery of DNA structure, the regulatory code of the genome still remains an unsolved mystery and, as such, understanding the complex interplay between regulatory DNA regions and transcription factors (TF), regulatory RNAs, signalling pathways and epigenetic marks that determine gene expression is among the main current challenges of modern molecular genetics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This methylase activity is associated with Hox gene activation and H3 (Lys4) methylation at cis-regulatory sequences in vivo. (sdbonline.org)
  • These data indicate that Otx1 is a new pituitary transcription factor involved at the prepubescent stage in the control of GH, FSH and LH hormone levels and suggest that a complex regulatory mechanism might exist to control the physiological need for pituitary hormones at specific postnatal stages (Acampora, 1998a). (sdbonline.org)
  • Together these data suggest that inactivation of the N‐terminal region of the paired domain by alternative splicing is used in vivo to selectively target Pax transcription factors to gene regulatory regions containing highly specialized 5aCON‐like sequences. (embopress.org)
  • functional
  • Further reduction of Bmp receptor activity by removing one functional copy of another Bmp type I receptor gene, Bmpr1b , in the retina-specific Bmpr1a mutant background, results in abnormal retinal dorsoventral patterning. (biologists.org)
  • Functional elucidation of LSGs remains a daunting task and only a few have been characterized beyond their expression patterns [ 5 - 10 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • promoters
  • P-OTX is able to independently activate and to synergize with Pit-1 on pituitary-specific target gene promoters. (sdbonline.org)
  • bHLH
  • Class II bHLH proteins preferentially form heterodimers with the broadly expressed Class I bHLH factors called E-proteins (E2a, HEB and E2-2) ( Massari and Murre, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • As predicted from the crystal structures, much of the phenotypic specificity of the bHLH transcription factors resides within the bHLH domain itself. (biologists.org)
  • 2000
  • The greater HLH transcription factor family has been grouped into classes based on tissue distribution, dimerization capabilities and DNA-binding specificities ( Massari and Murre, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • development
  • The transcription factor gene Pax2 is important in the regionalized embryological development of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies have implicated at least two members of the Bmp gene family, Bmp4 and Bmp7 , in mouse eye development. (biologists.org)
  • This differential gene expression suggests that spinal cord interneurons acquire unique identities early in their development and that Notch signaling mechanisms may participate in the determination of cell fate along the d/v axis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Expression in the epiphysis is suppressed at 23 h post-fertilization (hpf) in the floating head ( flh ) mutant, in which development of the epiphysis is impaired. (sdbonline.org)
  • optic
  • Mutations within PAX2 have been shown to result in optic nerve colobomas and renal hypoplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • This expression is not essential for the formation of intermediate mesoderm but for the differentiation towards renal and gonadal structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • Most of the gene expression domains showed conserved pattern, which reflects the situation in the gnathostomes, conforming partly to the neuromeric patterns proposed for the gnathostomes. (biologists.org)
  • mice
  • In mice, during gastrulation on embryological day 7.5, cells fated to become intermediate mesoderm show the mouse OSR1 homologue, Osr1, expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • Transcripts of this gene give rise to four alternative splice products (Pax8a to Pax8d) which differ in their C‐terminal sequences while sharing common N‐terminal regions including the paired domain. (embopress.org)