Loading...
  • function
  • Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related to RNA polymerases of bacteriophage and mitochondrial polymerases of lower eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • The results of human miRNA array and real-time PCR showed that ZNRD1 could significantly up-regulate the expression of miR-214 and down-regulate the expression of miR-296. (nih.gov)
  • genes
  • DNA microarray experiments simultaneously measure the expression levels of thousands of genes, generating huge amounts of data. (scribd.com)
  • This can be done using data-driven methods, such as hierarchical clustering and selforganizing maps [1, which identify groups of genes with similar expression patterns. (scribd.com)
  • Identifying those groups of biologically related genes that are showing a large number of gene-expression changes will create an informative description of the biology that is occurring in a particular dataset, making it possible to generate new hypotheses and identify those specific areas of biology that warrant more detailed investigation. (scribd.com)
  • When a MAPP is linked to a gene-expression dataset, GenMAPP automatically and dynamically color codes the genes on the MAPP according to criteria supplied by the user. (scribd.com)
  • In this study, we have utilized qPCR arrays to simultaneously analyze the temporal expression pattern of a range of genes involved in extracellular matrix metabolism in the mouse derived-macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 following stimulation with LPS. (hindawi.com)
  • SINEs are demethylated in human disease, but whether SINEs become transcriptionally induced and how the resulting transcripts may affect the expression of protein coding genes is unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • These observations suggest that transcriptional activation of SINEs could contribute to a novel mechanism of RNA mediated post-transcriptional silencing of human genes. (mdpi.com)
  • The overall aims of this thesis were to identify novel genes with differential expression in Alzheimer's disease and to investigate mechanisms initiating these changes and their relationship to the disease. (diva-portal.org)
  • Of several genes verified as differentially expressed in the patients, ITPKB (Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase B) and RGS4 (Regulator of G-protein signalling 4) presented the largest expression differences in Alzheimer's cases compared to control samples. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tumorigenesis is a complex dynamic biological process that includes multiple steps of genetic and epigenetic alterations, aberrant expression of noncoding RNA, and changes in the expression profiles of coding genes. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, we identified differentially expressed lncRNAs that are co-located and co-expressed with differentially expressed coding RNAs in ESCC and the results point to a potential interaction between lncRNAs and neighboring coding genes that affect ether lipid metabolism, and the interaction may contribute to the development of ESCC. (hindawi.com)
  • In past decades, expression profiling of coding genes has defined important signaling pathways involved in tumorigenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • LncRNAs are generally expressed at a lower level than protein-coding genes, and they display more tissue-specific and cell-specific expression patterns [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2-fold down) in the glioblastoma multiforme patient microvesicle RNA, validated by qRT-PCR on several genes. (harvard.edu)
  • Budding yeast noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed during mitosis, and some regulate mitotic protein-coding genes. (pnas.org)
  • Using high-resolution profiling we identified an extensive meiotic ncRNA expression program interlaced with the protein-coding transcriptome via sense/antisense transcript pairs, bidirectional promoters, and ncRNAs that overlap the regulatory regions of genes. (pnas.org)
  • In simple eukaryotes such as yeasts, the process is partially controlled by a complex expression program coordinating the activity of several hundred protein-coding genes ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although most work on meiotic development has focused on protein-coding genes, some evidence for the expression of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in sporulating budding yeast and fission yeast has been reported ( 4 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether expression of particular drug resistance genes in primary operable breast cancer correlates with response to first-line chemotherapy in advanced disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For each of these drug resistance genes, a large variation in expression level was observed among the tumors of the different patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When analyzing mRNA expression in relation to overall response, it was found that the median expression level of these five drug resistance genes in the responding tumors, as compared with nonresponding tumors, was markedly lower. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Classification of tumors as high versus low with respect to the expression level of these genes showed that the overall response in the MDR1-high subset (17%), as compared with the MDR1-low subset (68%), was significantly lower ( P = 0.005). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although similar differences in response rate were found for subsets of tumors stratified by the expression level of the other drug resistance genes, none of the observed differences were statistically significant. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, no correlation between the expression level of these drug resistance genes and post-relapse overall survival was found. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It consists of a non-coding 222nt sRNA called RatA (RNA anti-toxin A) and a protein toxin named TxpA (Toxic protein A). RatA was discovered in intergenic regions of the B. subtilis genome, in a 728-nucleotide region between genes yqdB (later renamed TxpA) and yqbM. (wikipedia.org)
  • MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other genes by several mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes are often selected from housekeeping genes as their functions related to basic cellular survival normally imply constitutive gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enables researchers to report a ratio for the expression of the genes of interest divided by the expression of the selected normalizer, thereby allowing comparison of the former without actually knowing its absolute level of expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly used normalizing genes are those that code for the following molecules: tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, albumin, cyclophilin, and ribosomal RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • SINEs, like tRNAs and many small-nuclear RNAs possess an internal promoter and thus are transcribed differently than most protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though transcribed by RNA polymerase III, SINEs and other genes possessing internal promoters, recruit different transcriptional machinery and factors than genes possessing upstream promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi
  • The application of RNA interference (RNAi) to study gene function is now commonplace in a variety of biological systems. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Producing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) by DNA vectors is one popular strategy for RNAi applications. (alliedacademies.org)
  • To obtain long-term RNAi effects, the strategy to construct plasmid expressing short hairpin RNA has been developed (Brummelkamp et al, 2002), through which the shRNA-encoding cassette can be integrated into the host genome to produce shRNA continually. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Genomes
  • They are a class of retrotransposons, DNA elements that amplify themselves throughout eukaryotic genomes, often through RNA intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • This presentation will describe highly specific RNA methods for body fluid identification that exhibit promise for forensic casework analysis. (brighttalk.com)
  • Methods: Microvesicle RNA from serum from patients with de-novo primary glioblastoma multiforme (N = 9) and normal controls (N = 7) were analyzed by microarray analysis. (harvard.edu)
  • induces
  • Our results revealed that LPS induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinases while at the same time decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. (hindawi.com)
  • peripheral blood
  • RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) of AGO2 in htra-8 cells and qRT-PCR analysis of hsa_circ_0036877 expression in maternal whole peripheral blood samples of participants were then conducted to confirm that hsa_circ_0036877 is a ceRNA and potential novel blood biomarker for early PE, respectively. (springer.com)
  • small
  • Therefore, we investigated KIF14 expression in association with clinical variables and the effect of KIF14 on in vitro colony formation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • vitro
  • KIF14 expression is independently prognostic for disease-free survival in lung cancer and knockdown decreases tumorigenicity in vitro, showing that it is a clinically relevant oncogene and an exciting therapeutic target for further study. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • proteins
  • One notable case is that of the Pumilio family (Puf) RNA-binding proteins in yeast. (gnxp.com)
  • Together with earlier data (12), these new results (16) strongly support the idea that the expression of proteins with common functional themes or subcellular distributions is coordinated by large-scale regulatory networks operating at the mRNP level. (gnxp.com)
  • affects
  • Functional studies in SH-SY5Y cell cultures overexpressing RGS4 showed that it is likely that RGS4 affects APP processing by regulating PRKC expression levels. (diva-portal.org)
  • sequence
  • We find that BRCA1 mRNA is post-transcriptionally down-regulated in a Dicer and Drosha dependent manner and that expression of a SINE inverted repeat with sequence identity to a BRCA1 intron is sufficient for downregulation of BRCA1 mRNA. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA interference elicits posttranscriptional gene silencing in a sequence-specific fashion, which provides a powerful tool to explore a gene's function. (alliedacademies.org)
  • differential
  • Differential expressions were validated by qRT-PCR in a separate set of samples (N = 10 in both groups). (harvard.edu)
  • The present study demonstrates a unique function for budding yeast Rrp6 in degrading distinct classes of meiotically induced ncRNAs during vegetative growth and the onset of meiosis and thus points to a critical role of differential ncRNA expression in the execution of a conserved developmental program. (pnas.org)
  • amounts
  • 2010), the 5′ ends or RNAs were captured with the template-switching method instead of CAP Trapper, in order to analyze smaller starting amounts of total RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this technique is still used to assess gene expression, it requires relatively large amounts of RNA and provides only qualitative or semi quantitative information of mRNA levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene of interest
  • The idea of RNA regulons is nice, but how much can you predict knowing that your gene of interest is part of one? (gnxp.com)
  • In this method, purified RNA is separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, transferred to a solid matrix (such as a nylon membrane), and probed with a specific DNA or RNA probe that is complementary to the gene of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • RNA was extracted from 129 untreated, resected tumors and KIF14 expression was quantified by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this pilot study, MDR1 expression in primary breast tumors was inversely related with the efficacy of first-line chemotherapy, and high expression level was a significant predictor of poor prognosis for patients with advanced disease. (aacrjournals.org)
  • yeast
  • Here, we used high-resolution oligonucleotide tiling arrays to study the protein-coding and noncoding expression program underlying vegetative and reproductive phases of the haploid and diploid budding yeast life cycle, and we integrated the results with genomic, genetic, and biochemical analyses of Rrp6. (pnas.org)
  • degradation
  • These data highlight the complexity of the gene expression regulation implicated in macrophage-dependent matrix degradation and furthermore emphasize the value of qPCR array techniques for the investigation of the complex regulation of the matrix degradome. (hindawi.com)
  • abundant
  • N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common and abundant methylation modification in RNA molecules (mRNA) present in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • complementary
  • P2-12-13: Topoisomerase 2 alpha (TOP2A) RNA Expression Provides Prognostic Information in Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer That Is Complementary to a Simulated Algorithm for Recurrence Score. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have previously reported that TOP2A RNA expression was prognostic in patients with operable estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer treated with anthracycline containing adjuvant chemotherapy plus endocrine therapy in trial E2197, and provided complementary prognostic information in those who had a mid-range Recurrence Score (RS) (Sparano et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings also suggest that TOP2A expression provides information that is complementary to RS, and may be useful for identifying high risk subjects who have a mid-range RS. (aacrjournals.org)
  • biology
  • MAPPFinder is a tool that creates a global gene-expression profile across all areas of biology by integrating the annotations of the Gene Ontology (GO) Project with the free software package GenMAPP (http://www.GenMAPP.org). (scribd.com)
  • GenMAPP is a useful starting point for pathway-based analysis of gene-expression data, but there are several critical requirements to be met before this tool can be used to identify correlated gene-expression changes across all biology. (scribd.com)
  • His research interest has been focused on the molecular biology of influenza viruses and several other negative-strand RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • prognostic
  • The results of this study also imply that ATBF1-A gene expression may have potential both as a marker of endocrine responsiveness and also as a prognostic indicator for breast cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Five-year relapse free survival (RFS) rates were also evaluated for patients with a mid-range SimRS for high vs. low TOP2A expression (above vs. below the median, which was prognostic in E2197). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This analysis provides additional evidence that TOP2A expression provides prognostic information in patients with ER-positive, HER2−negative disease, a population known to have low incidence of TOP2A gene alterations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Its expression is used as a prognostic aid in these cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • validated by quantitative
  • RNAs ( Chd5 , Furin , lnc-ELAVL4-9:1, lnc-RAP1GAP2-5:2, hsa_circ_0036877, hsa_circ_0036878, hsa_circ_0055724, hsa_circ_0049730, and hsa_circ_0036474) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). (springer.com)
  • human
  • Tissue-specific expression of the human α-fetoprotein ( AFP ) gene is strongly stimulated by an enhancer element located 3.3 to 4.9 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site (1, 2) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several broadly targeted real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCRs) systems for surveillance of RNA expression of the major groups of human gammaretroviral ERVs were constructed. (diva-portal.org)
  • reverse transcription
  • The relative expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and subsequently analyzed in relation to the type of response to chemotherapy, the length of progression-free survival (PFS), and post-relapse overall survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • levels
  • In addition, intergenic comparison of the expression levels of related proteases revealed large differences in their basal expression level. (hindawi.com)
  • Several splice variants of RGS4 showed similar down-regulation levels and one rare haplotype was associated with decreased RGS4 expression. (diva-portal.org)
  • It was also found that in highly malignant AFP-producing gastric cancer cells the expression of AFP is inhibited by ATBF1-A. This led us to hypothesize that there was a link between levels of ATBF1 expression and the metastatic potential of breast cancer and also, therefore, the prognosis of these patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD40-independent T cell help can also be measured as an early increase in c-myc mRNA levels in CD40-deficient B cells presenting Ag to helper T cells, although the levels of c-myc RNA expression are lower than those in normal B cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Expression levels of BCRP , MRP1 , or MRP2 were not related with the length of PFS. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apart from MDR1 , the expression levels of BCRP , LRP , and MRP1 might have some additional predictive value for clinical outcome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Negative
  • The other RNAs regulated in this path in neurons must have opposing effects to Arc though because knocking down this negative regulation pathway led to increased excitability (increased Arc reduces neuronal excitability). (gnxp.com)
  • The analysis included 752 patients with early stage breast cancer that was ER-positive, HER2−negative defined by gene expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • His contributions to his field have included the generation and evaluation of influenza virus vectors as potential vaccine candidates against infectious diseases, including malaria and AIDS, as well as the development (with Dr. Peter Palese) of the first reverse-genetic approaches for the production of infectious recombinant influenza viruses from plasmid DNA - research which has resulted in techniques which are now routinely used with many negative strand RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the first to identify the biological role of the non-structural NS1 Influenza Protein during infection, the first to describe and provide a molecular analysis of a viral-encoded IFN antagonist among negative strand RNA viruses, and the first to demonstrate that the M1 protein of the influenza virus determines its morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • David L. Spector (born (1952-12-06)December 6, 1952, in New York City) is a cell and molecular biologist best recognized for his research on gene expression and nuclear dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • His laboratory has developed approaches to elucidate the spatial and temporal aspects of gene expression and in identifying and characterizing the function of nuclear retained long non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA coded by the short-interspersed nuclear element does not code for any protein product but is nonetheless reverse-transcribed and inserted back into an alternate region in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Identifying correlated geneexpression changes in an individual pathway is often interesting, but it is necessary to know if the gene-expression changes seen on a particular pathway are unique to this pathway or are occurring in many other pathways. (scribd.com)
  • miR-138 helps establish discrete domains of gene expression during cardiac morphogenesis by targeting multiple members of a common pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • The latest knowledge of actively transcribed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) from high-throughput sequencing is revealing an even greater complexity about cancer genome regulatory networks. (hindawi.com)
  • This is a list of long noncoding RNA databases, which provide information about lncRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • However, c-myc RNA induced by noncognate interaction with anti-CD3-activated T cells is completely CD40 dependent. (jimmunol.org)
  • significantly
  • For those with an intermediate SimRS, five year RFS rates were significantly higher in 2 datasets individually for high vs. low TOP2A expression (HR 1.82, p=0.007 in pooled analysis). (aacrjournals.org)