• maturation
  • Implicit memory is controlled by an early-developing memory system in the brain that is present very early on, and can be explained by the early maturation of striatum, cerebellum, and brain stem, which are all involved in implicit learning and memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • marijuana
  • Sept. 12 (UPI) -- Researchers at the University of Western Ontario have developed a method to use pharmaceuticals to reverse the negative psychiatric effects of THC in marijuana. (upi.com)
  • What is important about this study is that not only have we identified a specific mechanism in the prefrontal cortex for some of the mental health risks associated with adolescent marijuana use, but we have also identified a mechanism to reverse those risks," Steven Laviolette, professor at Western Ontario's Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, said in a news release . (upi.com)
  • Researchers at Western University have found a way to use pharmaceuticals to reverse the negative psychiatric effects of THC, the psychoactive chemical found in marijuana. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Observational studies in humans cannot account for all potentially confounding variables when addressing change in a complex trait like IQ, and future studies will be needed to further clarify exactly how much intelligence may be lost as a result of adolescent marijuana use. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Regular marijuana use in adolescence is part of a cluster of behaviors that can produce enduring detrimental effects and alter the trajectory of a young person's life-thwarting his or her potential. (drugabuse.gov)
  • September 10, 2012 - We repeatedly hear the myth that marijuana is a benign drug-that it is not addictive (which it is) or that it does not pose a threat to the user's health or brain (which it does). (drugabuse.gov)
  • A major new study published last week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (and funded partly by NIDA and other NIH institutes) provides objective evidence that, at least for adolescents, marijuana is harmful to the brain. (drugabuse.gov)
  • While this study cannot exclude all potential contributory factors (e.g., child abuse, subclinical mental illness, mild learning disabilities), the neuropsychological declines following marijuana use were present even after researchers controlled for factors like years of education, mental illness, and use of other substances. (drugabuse.gov)
  • There is much to learn about how varied adolescent experiences - playing video games, for example, or sleep habits, or head injuries from sports, and experimentation with alcohol, tobacco, marijuana or other substances - affect development and vice-versa. (ucsd.edu)
  • Adolescence is also critical for marijuana use-Ehlers recently published a study funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) showing early marijuana use by Southwest California Indians was strongly associated with abuse and dependence. (scripps.edu)
  • outcomes
  • Though limited in their application to the complex human brain, such studies can more definitively assess the relationship between drug exposure and various outcomes. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Research is encouraged to incorporate recent advances in adolescent and young adult developmental research to optimize outcomes in HIV prevention and care research for this heterogeneous population. (nih.gov)
  • During the course of the next decade, scientists will use advanced brain imaging, interviews, and behavioral testing to determine how childhood experiences interact with each other and with a child's changing biology to affect brain development and, ultimately, social, behavioral, academic, health and other outcomes. (ucsd.edu)
  • The study combined data from three large, long-running Australasian studies to examine associations between cannabis use in adolescence and later life outcomes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Researchers, including the CHDS's Professor David Fergusson, found a strong connection between the extent of use of cannabis before age 17 and a number of outcomes assessed up to the age of 30. (healthcanal.com)
  • cannabis
  • In a rebuttal letter published in the March 4, 2013 issue of PNAS, the authors of the first study note that SES could not account for the findings they observed, because adolescent cannabis use was not more prevalent in populations with lower SES. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Researchers administered IQ tests to over 1,000 individuals at age 13 (born in 1972 and 1973) and assessed their patterns of cannabis use at several points as they aged. (drugabuse.gov)
  • One of the most critical groups to study in relation to cannabis use is the adolescent population. (socialworktoday.com)
  • Fortunately, there are numerous studies being conducted today that aim to help everyone-professionals and adolescents and their support systems-better understand the impact cannabis can have on a young brain. (socialworktoday.com)
  • Furthermore, by starting research when youths are 9 or 10, the ABCD researchers are more likely to have the ability to document the difference in a youth's development prior to and after the start of cannabis use. (socialworktoday.com)
  • Importantly, this study will begin collecting this vast amount of information among children before most of them have begun to use substances, allowing us to characterize risk and resilience factors, as well as the impact of cannabis and other drug use on development," Dowling notes. (socialworktoday.com)
  • He says the findings reinforce the message that cannabis use in adolescence, and particularly early onset regular cannabis use, is not without harm. (healthcanal.com)
  • Any changes to legislation around cannabis use should be carefully assessed against the potential for increasing the availability and/or use of cannabis to young people, and the likely adverse effects on adolescent development, Professor Fergusson says. (healthcanal.com)
  • 4 Evidence on the role of adolescent cannabis use as a gateway to use of other illicit drugs, and its relationship with tobacco use and alcohol, is inconsistent. (bmj.com)
  • Longitudinal studies are required to tease out the relationship between cannabis use exposure and drug-related harm. (bmj.com)
  • 7 , 13 As young people do not initiate cannabis use at the same time, or develop similar patterns during adolescence, latent variable modelling is a useful tool to characterise different adolescent cannabis trajectories. (bmj.com)
  • A recent large longitudinal twin study found little evidence that adolescent cannabis use causes IQ decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent medical evidence strongly suggests that the long-term use of cannabis by people who begin use at an early age display a higher tendency towards mental health problems and other physical and development disorders, although the causal link is not yet definitively established. (wikipedia.org)
  • Key predisposing variables include age of first exposure, frequency of use, the potency of the cannabis used, and individual susceptibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • psychiatric
  • However, while sociological exposures are still widely studied in psychiatric epidemiology, the field has since expanded to the study of a wide area of environmental risk factors, such as major life events, as well as genetic exposures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasingly neuroscientific techniques like MRI are used to explore the mechanisms behind how exposures to risk factors may impact psychological problems and explore the neuroanatomical substrate underlying psychiatric disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • These allow the study of naturally occurring exposures and how they affect changes in psychiatric symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current psychiatric research into the development of the disorder is often based on a neurodevelopmental model (proponents of which see schizophrenia as a syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABCD
  • The ABCD Coordinating Center is housed at UC San Diego, led by Terry Jernigan, professor of cognitive science, psychiatry and radiology and director of the Center for Human Development and Sandra Brown, vice chancellor for research and professor of psychology and psychiatry. (ucsd.edu)
  • neuroscience
  • There's been an incredible explosion in scientific data that allows us to understand the brain better as genetics, research, physics, imaging and cognitive research have all collided to present an unprecedented opportunity of multimodality and multidisciplinary research," says Sergio Gonzalez-Arias, M.D., Ph.D., chairman of the Department of Neuroscience at the Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine . (fiu.edu)
  • We at FIU have an incredible group of well-respected and renowned neuroscience researchers coming together, and this provides endless opportunities in today's research world," Gonzalez-Arias says. (fiu.edu)
  • serotonin
  • Adolescent MDMA exposure partially attenuated the hyperthermic effects of the PD 67 MDMA challenge, completely blocked the locomotor hypoactivity otherwise observed on the day after the challenge, and also prevented MDMA-induced serotonin neurotoxicity assessed on PD 74 by measuring regional [ 3 H]citalopram binding to the serotonin transporter (SERT). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Adolescent MDMA-treated animals also showed a partial attenuation of the serotonin syndrome but not the hypothermic response to the high dose of 8-OH-DPAT. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The study revealed behavioral changes in the offspring associated with impaired development of the central serotonin system in the brain. (medicalxpress.com)
  • While some persistent cognitive deficits were found, no significant group differences in serotonin or dopamine levels were found in any of the measured regions of the brain changes, cortical or subcortical. (scirp.org)
  • findings
  • Dr. Li also delivered a lecture entitled "Alcohol Research: Now and the Future," in the RSA Student Lecture Series, and co-chaired a session on "Alcohol-Induced Brain Damage: New Findings from the Asian-Pacific Region. (nih.gov)
  • Given the high level of dietary fat consumption and maternal obesity in developed nations, these findings have important implications for the mental health of future generations ," the researchers report. (medicalxpress.com)
  • schizophrenia
  • Researchers found that by using drugs to activate GABA in a rat model of schizophrenia, they were able to reverse the neuronal and behavioral effects of THC and halt schizophrenia symptoms. (upi.com)
  • The study results will assist not only those who teach budding scientists and engineers, it may also help clinicians identify the sources of disruption in functional brain networks that lead to conditions like depression, schizophrenia and autism. (fiu.edu)
  • Potential new ways of understanding the cause of cognitive impairments, such as problems with memory and attention, in brain disorders including schizophrenia and Alzheimer's are under the spotlight in a new research review. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The one thing that researchers can agree on is that schizophrenia is a complicated and variable condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence suggests that genetic vulnerability with environmental factors can act in combination resulting in the development of schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • consequences
  • Steven Youngentob cautioned that "Within the context of 'at risk' adolescents, prior exposure to (alcohol) may, among other things, worsen the consequences of alcohol-related social interaction by increasing teenagers' propensity to engage in such settings. (treatmentcenters.com)
  • cognition
  • Illinois psychology professor Daniel Hyde is joining the study to introduce new measures of infant brain activity that the researchers hope will reveal underlying neurophysiological changes that may be mediating changes in cognition. (phys.org)
  • While researchers have found that moderate alcohol consumption in older adults is associated with better cognition and well-being than abstinence, excessive alcohol consumption is associated with widespread and significant brain lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • So while it appeared that nothing had changed, the researchers found something interesting upon looking more closely: One area in the back center of the brain was more active in the post-class students. (fiu.edu)
  • National surveys have correlated the age of onset of drinking with development of alcohol dependence in the general population, and Ehlers has found this effect extends to a group of Mexican Americans in San Diego County. (scripps.edu)
  • early
  • Researchers at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan have discovered a process through which changes in nutrition during early mouse pregnancy lead to offspring that develop schizophrenic-like symptoms as adults. (medicalxpress.com)
  • However the rate of conversion from testosterone to estradiol (driven by FSH/LH balance) during early puberty is highly individual, resulting in very diverse development patterns of secondary sexual characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the early development of female amygdalae, they reach their growth potential sooner than males, whose amygdalae continue to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is inferred that the early development of the left amygdala functions to provide infants the ability to detect danger. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such studies suggest that genetics, prenatal development, early environment, neurobiology and psychological and social processes are important contributory factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficits in retrieval of verbal and nonverbal information and in visuospatial functioning were evident in youths with histories of heavy drinking during early and middle adolescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • child's
  • The development of memory in children becomes evident within the first 3 years of a child's life as they show considerable advances in declarative memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parents play a large role in a child's life, socialization, and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having multiple parents can add stability to the child's life and therefore encourage healthy development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another influential factor in a child's development is the quality of their care. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child abuse and child maltreatment as "all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child's health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power. (wikipedia.org)
  • The WHO defines physical abuse as: Intentional use of physical force against the child that results in - or has a high likelihood of resulting in - harm for the child's health, survival, development or dignity. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocrine
  • These chemicals, which have become ubiquitous in American households over the past 50 years, act as "endocrine disruptors," mimicking and potentially interfering with hormone-mediated development of the brain and reproductive functions. (phys.org)
  • This can be due to any number of factors, including improved nutrition resulting in rapid body growth, increased weight and fat deposition, or exposure to endocrine disruptors such as xenoestrogens, which can at times be due to food consumption or other environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral
  • On the other hand, the physiological and behavioral responses to repeated MDMA exposure may be either diminished or enhanced, depending on the test measure and the treatment regimen. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The study was published in the journal, Behavioral and Brain Functions. (treatmentcenters.com)
  • study
  • The new research is part of a large-scale study of health and development conducted in New Zealand. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The central project, called the Illinois Kids Development Study (I-KIDS), follows pregnant women and their babies, measuring the levels of the compounds of interest in maternal urine during pregnancy and collecting data on possible sources of exposure. (phys.org)
  • Researchers are expanding the I-KIDS study to include information about maternal weight and maternal and infant diet. (phys.org)
  • The objective of this study was to analyze trends in youth and young adult exposure to e-cigarette television advertisements in the United States. (aappublications.org)
  • The study includes comprehensive assessments of physical and mental health, substance use, culture and environment, neurocognition, as well as structural and functional brain imaging, and biospecimen collection for environmental, hormonal, and genetic analyses. (socialworktoday.com)
  • One of the studies was the University of Otago's Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS). (healthcanal.com)
  • Two notable historical studies focusing on etiology are the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study and the Christchurch Health and Development Study. (wikipedia.org)
  • The way that researchers study the memory capabilities of infants in this age range is through measuring eye movements between test images presented. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since its publication in 1979, Bronfenbrenner's major statement of this theory, The Ecology of Human Development has had widespread influence on the way psychologists and others approach the study of human beings and their environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitter
  • These results provide evidence for compromised neurocognition that continues long after drug exposure in the absence of any discernable changes in neurotransmitter levels. (scirp.org)
  • time
  • Phthalates, which are used in plastics, cosmetics, building materials, food wrappers, textiles, toys, and in the coating of some time-release medications, at high exposure levels have been shown to cause birth defects in rodents. (phys.org)
  • If you've lived through your own or your kids' adolescence, you know it's an extraordinary time, marked by tremendous growth and a host of opportunities as well as challenges. (ucsd.edu)
  • It is also a time of significant social and emotional development, and demanding intellectual/academic performance. (socialworktoday.com)
  • young adult
  • The dramatic increase in youth and young adult television exposure between 2011 and 2013 was driven primarily by a large advertising campaign on national cable networks. (aappublications.org)
  • pathways
  • Understanding how the pathways within the brain work to enable the functionality of its connections-electrical, anatomical and physiological - has long eluded us, in part because they could not be easily seen or observed. (fiu.edu)
  • Together, these results suggest that alcohol exposure during adolescence can sensitize the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine pathways to cause changes in dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling, which may affect the remodeling and functions of the adolescent brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • intellectual
  • Factors such as poverty that are frequently associated with PCE have a much stronger influence on children's intellectual and academic abilities than does exposure to cocaine in isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • won't ever achieve the intellectual development to have consciousness of God. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jean Piaget was a Swiss scholar who began his studies in intellectual development in the 1920s. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • First, they tested the adult mice for changes in the density and structure of dendritic spines (nerve endings) in the infralimbic cortex (IL), prelimbic cortex (PL) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) regions of the brain. (news-medical.net)
  • They have shown that exposure to cannabinoids during adolescent development can cause long-lasting changes in the brain's reward system as well as the hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory. (drugabuse.gov)
  • widely
  • A University of Illinois research program that investigates the health effects of exposure to chemicals widely used in plastics has received a five-year, $8 million grant as part of the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers program, jointly funded through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). (phys.org)
  • effects
  • This finding is consistent with the notion that drug use during adolescence-when the brain is still rewiring, pruning, and organizing itself-can have negative and long-lasting effects on the brain. (drugabuse.gov)
  • This reinforces the fact that pre-natal exposure makes children more attracted to alcohol, increasing alcoholic tendencies in them when teenagers, with the effects sometimes lasting a lifetime. (treatmentcenters.com)
  • Ultimately, we hope that understanding the relationships between and among these experiences and their effects on the growing brain will provide actionable information to help educators, parents, policymakers, and health professionals improve the lives of children. (socialworktoday.com)
  • Studies focusing on children of six years and younger have not shown any direct, long-term effects of PCE on language, growth, or development as measured by test scores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus researchers have had difficulty in determining which effects result from PCE and which result from other factors in the children's histories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol has different effects on different types of actively dividing hippocampal progenitors during their initial phases of neuronal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol
  • Ethanol can trigger the activation of astroglial cells which can produce a proinflammatory response in the brain. (wikipedia.org)