• metabolic
  • More recently, mounting evidence has been supporting the role of adipose tissue function in the development of metabolic complications independent of adipose tissue volume or distribution. (mdpi.com)
  • Therapeutic lifestyle change continues to be the most important intervention in clinical practice to improve adipose tissue function and avoid development of insulin resistance and related cardio-metabolic complications. (mdpi.com)
  • However, over the last decade, metabolic imaging and radiological studies based on the use of isotopic glucose analog fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) have provided conclusive evidence that BAT exists in adult humans. (hindawi.com)
  • This review discusses recent knowledge on the link between fat physiology and metabolic diseases, and the roles of PPAR γ in this interplay via the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. (nature.com)
  • Obesity, in particular visceral obesity, is associated with impaired insulin action on target tissues (insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome) that, in turn, is related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In theory, insulin resistance should even be strengthened under harsh metabolic conditions such as pregnancy, during which the expanding fetal brain demands more glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, many studies have investigated the metabolic response to starvation in humans and have detailed our physiological and biochemical understanding of the interaction of lipid and glucose metabolism (e.g., see Refs. (physiology.org)
  • A novel benzimidazole compound ZLN005 was previously identified as a transcriptional activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in certain metabolic tissues. (stanford.edu)
  • Glyceroneogenesis is a metabolic pathway which synthesizes glycerol 3-phosphate or triglyceride from precursors other than glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • During fasting or low carbohydrate diet, glycerol 3-phosphate is generated by another metabolic pathway called glyceroneogenesis which uses precursors other than glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolic activity of the exoenzymes allows the bacterium to invade host organisms by breaking down the host cells' defensive outer layers or by necrotizing body tissues of larger organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In living organisms, succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinate is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a primary metabolic pathway used to produce chemical energy in the presence of O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In addition to promoting glucose uptake, insulin regulates long-chain fatty acid uptake, protein synthesis, and vascular function in the normal cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
  • These processes are crucial for survival and serve to protect the organism from excessive erosion of protein mass, which is the predominant supplier of carbon chains that can be used for synthesis of newly formed glucose ( 14 , 26 , 87 , 99 ). (physiology.org)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence for this distinct glucose transport protein was provided by David James in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adiponectin is a 244-amino-acid-long polypeptide (protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, two receptors have been identified with homology to G protein-coupled receptors, and one receptor similar to the cadherin family: Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) Adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) T-cadherin - CDH13 These have distinct tissue specificities within the body and have different affinities to the various forms of adiponectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria such as Clostridium do so by using the enzyme to dissolve collagen and hyaluronic acid, the protein and saccharides, respectively, that hold tissues together. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human insulin protein is composed of 51 amino acids, and has a molecular mass of 5808 Da. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • Triacylglycerol consists of three fatty acids bound to a glycerol molecule and is considered the most neutral and harmless type of intracellular lipid storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, fatty acids can be converted to lipid intermediates like diacylglycerol, ceramides and fatty acyl-CoAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, marrow adipose tissue response to exercise approximates that of WAT exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as MAT volume as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone stained with the lipid binder osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • This also means that muscle cells are able to take in more glucose as its intracellular concentrations decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exposure of rat Langerhans islets to glucose for 1 hour is able to remarkably induce the intracellular proinsulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • Fructose undergoes the Maillard reaction, non-enzymatic browning, with amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built) and energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • Clinically, diabetes is defined by excessive blood glucose concentrations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Despite this elevated NEFA flux in type 2 diabetes (T2D), muscle NEFA uptake is not necessarily elevated because of reduced postprandial muscle blood flow ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interventions in patients with impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose have consistently demonstrated that by increasing physical activity and reducing calorie intake the risk to convert to frank type 2 diabetes is decreased, even more efficiently than by early medical therapy with metformin. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Excess body fat underlies 64% of cases of diabetes in men and 77% of cases in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is part of the natural course of developing impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes -- from insulin resistance to hyperinsulemia to impaired glucose tolerance to hyperglycemia to diabetes. (acpm.org)
  • This results in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by abnormally high blood glucose concentrations, and generalized body wasting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • obese
  • Elevated blood glucose and a non-obese phenotype are consistently documented characteristics of GK animals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Gene expression promoted by a diet of fat and glucose, as well as high levels of inflammation related cytokines found in the obese, can result in cells that "produce fewer and smaller mitochondria than is normal," and are thus prone to insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, people with an excess of fat cells find it harder to lose weight and keep it off than the obese who simply have enlarged fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Elevation of circulating fatty acids in humans has been shown to induce insulin resistance and impair β-cell function ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We have recently developed a noninvasive method using the oral administration of 14( R , S )-[ 18 F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ( 18 FTHA), a long-chain fatty acid analog, measured with positron emission tomography (PET) to assess organ-specific partitioning of dietary fatty acids in rodents and humans ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, a recent profusion of studies in functional imaging and molecular biology has demonstrated that BAT is a functionally active tissue in adult humans [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In humans it is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene and it is produced in adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), around internal organs (visceral fat), in bone marrow (yellow bone marrow), intermuscular (Muscular system) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycerol
  • However, glycerol 3-phosphate is generated through a different pathway when an organism is deficient of carbohydrates such as glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, triglyceride can be generated by re-esterification of 3 fatty acid chains on glycerol 3-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol. (wikipedia.org)
  • dysfunction
  • Decreased capacity for adipocyte differentiation and angiogenesis along with adipocyte hypertrophy can trigger a vicious cycle of inflammation leading to subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction and ectopic fat deposition. (mdpi.com)
  • When the storage capacity of non-adipose cells is exceeded, cellular dysfunction and/or death result. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause of apoptosis and extent of cellular dysfunction is related to the type of cell affected, as well as the type and quantity of excess lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • In fact, some early FDG-PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) scans noted "tumor-like" substrate uptake in the regions suggested to contain BAT [ 5 , 7 , 8 ] (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Inadequate available glucose substrate can lead to hypoglycemia, fetal growth restriction, preterm delivery, or other problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, excess substrate can lead to problems, such as infant of a diabetic mother (IDM), hypothermia or neonatal sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • inert
  • Adipose tissue is not an inert cell mass contributing only to the storage of fat, but a sophisticated ensemble of cellular components with highly specialized and complex functions. (nature.com)
  • Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and the cytokine TNFα. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreas
  • As we eat and glucose levels increase, insulin is released from the pancreas and into the blood stream. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the beta-cells of the pancreas, glucose enters through the GLUT 2 receptors (process described below). (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucose that goes in the bloodstream after food consumption also enters the beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • One of the main regulators of gene expression in fat is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), which is a fatty acid- and eicosanoid-dependent nuclear receptor that plays key roles in the development and maintenance of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-throughput RNA sequencing of lung tissue samples from the 1918 and 2009 influenza pandemic revealed that ANGPTL4 was one of the most significantly upregulated gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • fructose
  • Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide, sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-fructose corn syrup is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because fructose exists to a greater extent in the open-chain form than does glucose, the initial stages of the Maillard reaction occur more rapidly than with glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sweetness of fructose is perceived earlier than that of sucrose or glucose, and the taste sensation reaches a peak (higher than that of sucrose) and diminishes more quickly than that of sucrose. (wikipedia.org)