• fungi
  • As a result, yeast cells lacking the DAP1 gene are highly sensitive to antifungal drugs This function is conserved between the unrelated fungi S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal effectors are secreted by pathogenic or beneficial fungi into and around host cells by invasive hyphae to disable defense components or facilitate colonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fungi C5SD catalyzes the dehydration of episterol as a step in the synthesis of ergosterol, a sterol that regulates cell membrane fluidity and permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenic
  • Consequently, in both the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and model organism S. cerevisiae mutations in the gene encoding C-5 sterol desaturase (ERG3) allow the cell to avoid synthesizing the toxic sterol products and have been shown to confer azole resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • simpler
  • Plant and animal cell centrosomes play similar roles in cell division, and both include collections of microtubules, but the plant cell centrosome is simpler and does not have centrioles. (cellsalive.com)
  • induce
  • The released PDGF is thought to chemotactically attract fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells to the site of injury and to induce their focal proliferation as part of the process of wound repair (Ross and Glomset, N. Eng. (google.com.au)
  • signal
  • Therefore, infected cells recognize viral replication as a DNA damage stress and elicit DNA damage signal transduction, which ultimately induces apoptosis as part of host immune surveillance. (bio-medicine.org)
  • yeast cells
  • Yeast cells lacking the DAP1 gene are sensitive to DNA damage, and heme-binding is essential for damage resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity, RT-PCR is used in a wide range of applications from experiments as simple as quantification of yeast cells in wine to more complex uses as diagnostic tools for detecting infectious agents such as the avian flu virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These spores are smooth, globose to ellipsoid, and germinate by hyphal tube or by yeast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conidiophores are often present, producing conidiospores that are similar to yeast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • Also, HBV infection led to transient cell cycle arrest in the S and the G2 phases without accompanying increased apoptosis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Progesterone inhibits apoptosis in immortalized granulosa cells, and this activity requires PGRMC1 and its binding partner, PAIR-BP1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor RNA-binding protein-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Chemical inducers of dimerization (CIDs) are cell-permeable small molecules capable of dimerizing two protein targets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • First described by Schreiber and co-workers,( 1 ) chemical inducers of dimerization (CIDs) are cell-permeable, bidentate molecules capable of dimerizing two substrates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • roles
  • In plant cells, peroxisomes play a variety of roles including converting fatty acids to sugar and assisting chloroplasts in photorespiration. (cellsalive.com)
  • There are some subtypes of cyclins that are far more complex and execute different roles in the life of the eukaryotic cell, including the retinoblastoma protein known for its bond with the E2F protein. (reference.com)
  • Cholesterol serves multiple roles in the cell including modulating membrane fluidity serving as a precursor to steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effectors
  • It has been shown that cytoplasmic effectors can move through a few layers of plant cells, probably a way to prepare them for hyphal invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • In a eukaryotic cell, chromosome replication occurs during DNA synthesis, or the S phase of the cell cycle. (reference.com)
  • This is well documented by numerous studies of platelet extracts or purified PDGF induction of either cell multiplication or DNA synthesis (a prerequisite for cell division) in cultured smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and glial cells (Ross et al. (google.com.au)
  • cone
  • The seed of a vascular plant is a small package produced in a fruit or cone after the union of male and female reproductive cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • When a cell is dividing, the nuclear chromatin (DNA and surrounding protein) condenses into chromosomes that are easily seen by microscopy. (cellsalive.com)
  • viral
  • For transferring genes into the cells, viral vectors are used, for example, which make use of the efficient entry mechanisms of their original viruses. (google.es)
  • growth
  • Human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has been shown to be the major mitogenic protein in serum for mesenchymal derived cells. (google.com.au)
  • The disposable WAVE Bioreactor systems were designed based on a non-invasive rocking motion that provides excellent mixing and gas transfer for cell growth. (pasteur.fr)
  • Studies have shown that hosts with higher levels of immune response cells such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and invariant natural killer (iNK) T-cells exhibited greater control of fungal growth and protection against systemic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • There is a need for an efficient system of introducing nucleic acid into living cells particularly in gene therapy. (google.es)
  • By this is meant viruses in which the gene to be expressed in the cell has been integrated in the genome by recombinant methods. (google.es)
  • genes
  • The DNA is similar in every cell of the body, but depending on the specific cell type, some genes may be turned on or off - that's why a liver cell is different from a muscle cell, and a muscle cell is different from a fat cell. (cellsalive.com)
  • The chromosomes and genes contained within DNA are replicated during the S phase of the interphase cell cycle. (reference.com)
  • chitin
  • The addition of lactophenol blue with this test turns the chitin in the cell wall blue but leaves the budding conidia and globular conidiophores with their characteristic brown colouring. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The modified virus or cell binds the receptor in vive and is internalized by the target cell. (google.es)
  • hyphal
  • Tremella species produce hyphae that are typically (but not always) clamped and have haustorial cells from which hyphal filaments seek out and penetrate the hyphae of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • These cells tend to be larger than the cells of bacteria, and have developed specialized packaging and transport mechanisms that may be necessary to support their larger size. (cellsalive.com)
  • As an example, white blood cells produce hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria. (cellsalive.com)
  • cycle
  • According to Hartnell College, the cell cycle is divided into two primary phases, interphase and mitosis. (reference.com)
  • The S phase occurs within a key stage of the cell cycle known as interphase. (reference.com)
  • wall
  • The cell membrane (and, in many organisms, the cell wall) is the barrier between the two, and chemical composition of intra- and extracellular milieu (Milieu intérieur) can be radically different. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • The method provides vectors for selective delivery of nucleic acids to specific cell types in vivo and a means to alter the tropism of an infectious agent. (google.es)
  • single
  • Transcriptomes of different disease states, tissues or even single cells are now routinely generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • PGRMC1/25-Dx is expressed in various regions of the brain [hypothalamic area, circumventricular organs, ependymal cells of the lateral ventricles, meninges, including regions known to facilitate lordosis. (wikipedia.org)