• Arabidopsis
  • Experimental proteome analysis was combined with a genome-wide prediction screen to characterize the protein content of the thylakoid lumen of Arabidopsis chloroplasts. (plantcell.org)
  • The availability of the Arabidopsis genome now allows the classification of proteins according to predicted domain(s) and subcellular localization. (plantcell.org)
  • This outlook paper reviews the contribution of our research group to the characterization of the function played by the Arabidopsis thaliana COPT1-6 family of proteins in plant Cu homeostasis. (hindawi.com)
  • In response to Cu limitation, Arabidopsis master Cu homeostasis regulator SPL7 (SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like 7), similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Crr1 transcription factor [ 8 ], activates the expression of multiple genes that contain within their promoter repetitive Cu-responsive elements (CuREs) with a GTAC motif as the essential core sequence [ 9 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • enzyme
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, that use iron-sulfur proteins as electron donors and NAD+ or NADP+ as electron acceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycosylation
  • Once folded, the protein is modified as needed (for example, by glycosylation), then transported to the Golgi for further processing and goes to its target organelles or is retained in the ER by various ER retention mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • Future studies on the interaction between COPT transporters and other components of the Cu homeostasis network will improve our knowledge of plant Cu acquisition, distribution, regulation, and utilization by Cu-proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • respiration
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • helix
  • The ring has a tetramer shape with protein helix loop helix that goes though conformational change when protonated and deprotonated allowing to push neighboring subunits to rotate causing the spinning of FO which then affects conformation of F1 also, resulting on switching of states of alpha and beta subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second domain is at the carboxyl terminus of the protein and contains an alpha helix-beta strand fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • cofactor
  • Copper (Cu) functions as a redox active cofactor in a wide variety of plant proteins including plastocyanin, cytochrome c oxidase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), ethylene receptors, laccases, ascorbate and amine oxidases, plantacyanin, and polyphenol oxidases. (hindawi.com)
  • cytoplasm
  • In eukaryotic cells, Cu transport toward the cytoplasm is mediated by the conserved CTR/COPT family of high-affinity Cu transport proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Some of its proteins were then synthesized in the cytoplasm of the host cell, and imported back into the chloroplast (formerly the cyanobacterium). (wikipedia.org)
  • translocation
  • Lumenal proteins with a typical twin-arginine translocation motif were predicted with good accuracy and sensitivity and included additional isomerases and proteases. (plantcell.org)
  • In 1970, G√ľnter Blobel conducted experiments on the translocation of proteins across membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the synthesized proteins "belong" in a different organelle, they can be transported there in either of two ways depending on the protein: Co-translational translocation (translocation during the process of translation), and post-translational translocation (translocation after the process of translation is complete). (wikipedia.org)
  • This would seem to break the rule of "co-translational" translocation which has always held for mammalian proteins targeted to the ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • The new cellular resident quickly became an advantage, providing food for the eukaryotic host, which allowed it to live within it. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Importantly, the sequenced genome also makes it possible to take advantage of the dramatic improvements in biological mass spectrometry to study gene expression directly at the protein level and to determine protein localization and post-translational modifications efficiently in a systematic manner. (plantcell.org)
  • Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristics
  • Characteristics of the experimentally identified lumenal proteins and their orthologs were used for a genome-wide prediction of the lumenal proteome. (plantcell.org)
  • ribosome
  • The translation of mRNA into protein by a ribosome takes place within the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process begins with the N-terminal signal peptide of the protein being recognized by a signal recognition particle (SRP) while the protein is still being synthesized on the ribosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • These isomerases possibly are connected to a network of peripheral and lumenal proteins involved in antioxidative response, including peroxiredoxins, m-type thioredoxins, and a lumenal ascorbate peroxidase. (plantcell.org)
  • Cellular differentiation - A concept in developmental biology whereby less specialized cells become a more specialized cell type in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cell switches state from one cell type to another, it undergoes cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)