• intermembrane space
  • According to the current model of ATP synthesis (known as the alternating catalytic model), the transmembrane potential created by (H+) proton cations supplied by the electron transport chain, drives the (H+) proton cations from the intermembrane space through the membrane via the FO region of ATP synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabidopsis
  • This outlook paper reviews the contribution of our research group to the characterization of the function played by the Arabidopsis thaliana COPT1-6 family of proteins in plant Cu homeostasis. (hindawi.com)
  • In response to Cu limitation, Arabidopsis master Cu homeostasis regulator SPL7 (SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like 7), similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Crr1 transcription factor [ 8 ], activates the expression of multiple genes that contain within their promoter repetitive Cu-responsive elements (CuREs) with a GTAC motif as the essential core sequence [ 9 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • cytoplasm
  • In eukaryotic cells, Cu transport toward the cytoplasm is mediated by the conserved CTR/COPT family of high-affinity Cu transport proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Some of its proteins were then synthesized in the cytoplasm of the host cell, and imported back into the chloroplast (formerly the cyanobacterium). (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The size of this protein varies between species, but is about 92,000 Da (two 46,000 Da subunits) in cucumber plant leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence
  • He discovered that many proteins have a signal sequence, that is, a short amino acid sequence at one end that functions like a postal code for the target organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signal sequence of type II membrane proteins and some polytopic membrane proteins are not cleaved off and therefore are referred to as signal anchor sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are inserted into the membrane by translocation, until the process is interrupted by a stop-transfer sequence, also called a membrane anchor sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (which represent about 5% of the genes in humans) mostly do not have an amino-terminal signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to secretory proteins, the first transmembrane domain acts as the first signal sequence, which targets them to the ER membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiration
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the final stage of the cellular respiration of aerobic organisms. (differencebetween.com)
  • glycosylation
  • Once folded, the protein is modified as needed (for example, by glycosylation), then transported to the Golgi for further processing and goes to its target organelles or is retained in the ER by various ER retention mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • homeostasis
  • Future studies on the interaction between COPT transporters and other components of the Cu homeostasis network will improve our knowledge of plant Cu acquisition, distribution, regulation, and utilization by Cu-proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • genome
  • With Rubisco sometimes representing more than 50% of the total chloroplast protein, and indeed being the most abundant protein on earth, we can expect that this colossal scale of genome cooperation is quite tightly regulated. (edu.au)
  • The nucleus of eukaryotes also protects the genome from the cytoskeleton. (conservapedia.com)
  • nucleus
  • The most characteristic feature of a eukaryotic cell, the nucleus, consists of a nucleoplasm surrounded by a double nuclear membrane pierced by nuclear pores. (conservapedia.com)
  • helix
  • The ring has a tetramer shape with protein helix loop helix that goes though conformational change when protonated and deprotonated allowing to push neighboring subunits to rotate causing the spinning of FO which then affects conformation of F1 also, resulting on switching of states of alpha and beta subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second domain is at the carboxyl terminus of the protein and contains an alpha helix-beta strand fold. (wikipedia.org)
  • cofactor
  • Copper (Cu) functions as a redox active cofactor in a wide variety of plant proteins including plastocyanin, cytochrome c oxidase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), ethylene receptors, laccases, ascorbate and amine oxidases, plantacyanin, and polyphenol oxidases. (hindawi.com)
  • cell
  • Cellular differentiation - A concept in developmental biology whereby less specialized cells become a more specialized cell type in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a cell switches state from one cell type to another, it undergoes cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell wall of eukaryotes (when present) is usually composed of a β-(1→4)-glucan of some sort. (conservapedia.com)
  • Targeting signals are the pieces of information that enable the cellular transport machinery to correctly position a protein inside or outside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • electron
  • Once initiated, the electrons will move from one electron acceptor to the next in a chain while pumping H+ ions across the membrane that produces a proton motive force. (differencebetween.com)