• methyl
  • It is the starting compound for the vitamin nicotinamide and for the diester dimethyl-2-methylglutarate and the ester amide methyl 5-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-5-oxopentanoate, which are propagated as green solvents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diester can be selectively converted into a mixture of 1- or 5-substituted methyl ester amides with dimethylamine in methanol/sodium methoxide, which is used under the name Rhodiasolv® Polarclean as formulation auxiliaries for crop protection preparations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • tert-butanol
  • Furthermore, the benzyne trapping step is also thermodynamically favourable, calculated to be an additional -73 kcal mol−1 for trapping of an ester-substituted o-benzyne with tert-butanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohols
  • The definition of inorganic acid ester that feature inorganic chemical elements links between alcohols and the inorganic acid - the phosphorus atom linking to three alkoxy functional groups in organophosphate - can be extended to the same elements in various combinations of covalent bonds between carbons and the central inorganic atom and carbon-oxygen bonds to central inorganic atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of primary and secondary alcohols was tested, from methanol to 2-butanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • transesterification
  • We tested and optimised the FAEs' transesterification capabilities on ferulate esters in a 1- butanol-buffer system, with the aim of using the most promising candidates for the production of antioxidant compounds with improved hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties, such as prenyl ferulate, prenyl caffeate, glyceryl ferulate and 5-O-(transferuloyl)-arabinofuranose. (chalmers.se)
  • amides
  • The resulting ester amides are readily biodegradable and good solvents for a variety of different plant protection agents (such as insecticides or fungicides), also compared to the frequently used N-methylpyrrolidone, cyclohexanone or isophorone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike amides, esters are structurally flexible functional groups because rotation about the C-O-C bonds has a low barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , wherein at least about 70% of carbon in the carbohydrate source is converted into the butanol and hexanol. (google.com)
  • chemical
  • A process for the conversion of carbohydrates from any of a number of sources into butanol and hexanol for fuel or chemical use is disclosed. (google.com)
  • Removing water in the course of these esterifications shifts the chemical equilibrium in favor of ester formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • As oxygen is a group 16 chemical element, sulfur atoms can replace some oxygen atoms in carbon-oxygen-central inorganic atom covalent bonds of an ester. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • For example, phosphorus features three carbon-oxygen-phosphorus bondings and one phosphorus-oxygen double bond in organophosphates, three carbon-oxygen-phosphorus bondings and no phosphorus-oxygen double bonds in phosphite esters or organophosphites, two carbon-oxygen-phosphorus bondings, no phosphorus-oxygen double bonds but one phosphorus-carbon bond in phosphonites, one carbon-oxygen-phosphorus bondings, no phosphorus-oxygen double bonds but two phosphorus-carbon bonds in phosphinites. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • Water-gycol and polyol-ester are some of these specialized fluids that contain excellent thermal and hydrolitic properties, which aid in fire resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • These environmentally friendly produced sugar esters have the potential to be used in cosmetics or pharmaceuticals, or to enhance their effectiveness. (frontiersin.org)
  • CAZy family CE15) are involved in the degradation of plant biomass by hydrolysing ester linkages in plant cell walls, and thus have potential use in biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials and in biorefinery applications with the aim of developing new wood-based compounds [1, (chalmers.se)
  • Many esters have the potential for conformational isomerism, but they tend to adopt an s-cis (or Z) conformation rather than the s-trans (or E) alternative, due to a combination of hyperconjugation and dipole minimization effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • An example for their bioactivity is the use of sugar esters as antibacterial agent. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the ester hexyl octanoate, also known under the trivial name hexyl caprylate, has the formula CH3(CH2)6CO2(CH2)5CH3. (wikipedia.org)
  • clear
  • For a clear verification of the sugar esters, mass determinations by ESI-Q-ToF experiments and a NMR analysis were done. (frontiersin.org)
  • complex
  • Esters derived from more complex carboxylic acids are, on the other hand, more frequently named using the systematic IUPAC name, based on the name for the acid followed by the suffix -oate. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Nitrate esters, such as nitroglycerin, are known for their explosive properties, while polyesters are important plastics, with monomers linked by ester moieties. (wikipedia.org)