• premiums
  • According to a Kaiser Family Foundation report, "between 1999 and 2009, health insurance premiums rose 131 percent, a much faster rate of increase than general inflation (28 percent) or workers' earnings (38 percent). (truth-out.org)
  • When premiums skyrocket, the usual response from the insurance companies is that they are simply passing along the increase in health-care costs to the consumers. (truth-out.org)
  • What we have in America today is a trend of higher profits for insurance companies, higher premiums for employers and employees, and an increasing number of small-business owners and entrepreneurs worrying about the health-care costs of doing business. (truth-out.org)
  • Requires adjusted community rating, guaranteed issue, and guaranteed renewal of individual and small group health insurance that: limits age rating variation of premiums to 2:1 (200 percent), prohibits gender and health status rating variation of premiums, allows variation of premiums by geographic area and family (vs. individual) enrollment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three optional levels of coverage are to be offered by the plan which must set premiums at a level sufficient to fully finance the costs of the health benefits the administrative costs related to operating the plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provides a tax credit for low-income individuals and families to help pay insurance premiums. (wikipedia.org)
  • NFC operates the Direct Premium Remittance System (DPRS), which is used for billing and collecting health insurance premiums. (wikipedia.org)
  • The federal government's health insurance plan would have been financed entirely by premiums without subsidy from the Federal government, although some plans called for government seed money to get the programs started. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bill would set up a government-run health insurance plan with premiums 5% to 7% percent lower than private insurance. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCHAUMBURG, Ill., March 27 (UPI) -- The premiums of U.S. workers who buy their own health insurance will either go up or down depending on the state in which they live, actuaries estimate. (upi.com)
  • The report, sponsored by the Society of Actuaries, estimated the premiums of those whose employers don't provide health insurance and buy an individual healthcare plan themselves could increase by 32 percent on average nationwide within the next three years, but the estimates did not reflect the federal subsidies available to some small businesses and to low-income individuals in the form of tax credits, Bohn said. (upi.com)
  • Many aspects of the healthcare reform legislation will affect premiums, including changing benefit designs, new taxes and assessments, federal risk mitigation programs, minimum loss ratio rules -- the amount of overhead for insurance companies is restricted -- and premium subsidies by the government for those with low incomes. (upi.com)
  • We were surprised by the amount of differences among the states, they were all very different and their past experiences, their underwriting rules, healthcare programs, Medicaid all affect the premiums of the individual health insurance plans," Bohn said. (upi.com)
  • Ohio is ending with increased premiums, but is starting from lower premiums and costs to begin with -- so despite the increase, the premium estimate is still lower than national average," Bohn said. (upi.com)
  • The model assumed all of the parts of the Affordable Care Act would be enacted, including expanded Medicaid, but many states have said they would not expand Medicaid, so that will have an impact on the individual premiums as well, Bohn said. (upi.com)
  • The report, released Wednesday created a bit of a stir, because many mistakenly thought the increases in premiums involved those who currently get their health insurance as a benefit of their employment that is paid by the employer. (upi.com)
  • A major trend in employer sponsored cover has been increasing premiums, deductibles, and co-payments for medical services, and increasing the costs of using out-of-network health providers rather than in-network providers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The costs of treating the uninsured must often be absorbed by providers as charity care, passed on to the insured via cost-shifting and higher health insurance premiums, or paid by taxpayers through higher taxes. (wikipedia.org)
  • reform
  • The bill was introduced during the first session of the 111th Congress as part of an effort of the Democratic Party leadership to enact health care reform. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1017 page PDF version of the bill is the first of three health care reform-related legislative proposals expected from the Democratic congressional leadership. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basaglia Law or Law 180 (Italian: Legge Basaglia, Legge 180) is the Italian Mental Health Act of 1978 which signified a large reform of the psychiatric system in Italy, contained directives for the closing down of all psychiatric hospitals and led to their gradual replacement with a whole range of community-based services, including settings for acute in-patient care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Implementation of the psychiatric reform law was accomplished in 1998 which marked the very end of the state psychiatric hospital system in Italy. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Nursing homes have been the subject of decades of efforts by states and at the national levels to reform health and residential care for "frail" elders, especially those with lower incomes in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following his election, Obama downplayed the need for a public health insurance option, including calling it a "sliver" of health care reform, but still campaigned for the option up until the health care reform was passed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Funding for Medicaid and CHIP expanded significantly under the 2010 health reform bill. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endorse the proposal, either as a physician / medical student , or as a non-physician health professional / reform advocate outside the health professions . (pnhp.org)
  • A California Field Poll in April 2008 found that CNA has the highest favorable rating among all groups, politicians, and institutions involved in public policy debates over health care reform in the state. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the encouragement of the Obama administration, the 111th Congress devoted much of its time to enacting reform of the United States' health care system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Known as the "House bill", HR 3962 was the House of Representatives' chief legislative proposal during the health reform debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010, the House abandoned its reform bill in favor of amending the Senate bill (via the reconciliation process) in the form of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • The revisions included refinements designed to meet the goals outlined in the President's address to a joint session of Congress in September, 2009 concerning health care reform. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • 2 Profits at 10 of the country's largest publicly traded health insurance companies in 2007 rose 428 percent from 2000 to 2007, from $2.4 billion to $12.9 billion, according to U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission filings. (truth-out.org)
  • The "abortion pill," the drug RU-486 (mifepristone), was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States in 2000. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, France built upon its 1928 national health insurance system, with subsequent legislation covering a larger and larger percentage of the population, until the remaining 1% of the population that was uninsured received coverage in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public insurance cover increased from 2000-2010 in part because of an aging population and an economic downturn in the latter part of the decade. (wikipedia.org)
  • born 26 June 1936) is a Taiwanese geneticist who led the Department of Health from 2000 to 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lee was appointed Director-General of the Department of Health in April 2000 and took office on 20 May. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2000, Lee submitted a written protest to the agency for leaving Taiwan off a list of polio-free countries, stating that Taiwan should be listed separately from China, which had not yet succeeded in eradicating the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • mandate
  • The bill would amend the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act to remove the mandate that meaningful use standards become more stringent over time. (mwcllc.com)
  • The summary of the bill includes the following elements, among others: Establishes a mandate to purchase private insurance for most individuals with an income above poverty level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creates a mechanism to enforce the mandate in a sliding scale tax on those who do not purchase health insurance for most legal United States residents with an income above poverty level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Louisiana was one of 26 States that filed suit against the federal government concerning the legality of the PPACA, specifically focusing on two parts: § 1501 (the individual mandate) and Title II (the mandatory expansion of the Medicaid eligible population to 133 percent of the federal poverty level). (louisiana.gov)
  • Implications of the California nurse staffing mandate for other states. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989 the idea for the "individual mandate" that every household obtain adequate health care was proposed by the Heritage Foundation[citation needed] and supported in congress by high profile republicans Newt Gingrich, Orin Hatch and Charles Grassley in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • America
  • America is among the richest nations in the world and spends more on health care than any other country. (ascopost.com)
  • The reluctance of America to embrace universal health care may have been influenced by earlier ideologic movements in the 19th century. (ascopost.com)
  • The bill was not approved by the House, but was superseded by a similar bill, the proposed Affordable Health Care for America Act (HR 3962), which was passed by the House in November 2009, by a margin of 220-215 votes but later abandoned. (wikipedia.org)
  • The availability of psychiatric beds in Italy is lower than in other comparable countries: Italy has 46 psychiatric beds for every 100, 000 population, compared with 58 in the United Kingdom and 77 in the United States of America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond the 1990s, many countries in Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Asia-Pacific region, including developing countries, took steps to bring their populations under universal health coverage, including China which has the largest universal health care system in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1912
  • The Russian Empire established a similar system in 1912, and other industrialized countries began following suit. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1845 Poor Law Act gives limited provision of medical care to remote areas 1885 Poor Law amendment Act directed funds to urban poorhouses and away from rural provision 1910 Dewar Report published describing wholly inadequate medical provision in Highlands & Islands 1912 National Health Insurance Scheme set up but unworkable in crofting communities 1913 Highlands & Islands Medical Service set up. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1978
  • Since the passing of Law 180 in 1978, the Italian Mental Health Act has produced serious debate, disputing its sociopolitical implications, appraising its positive points and criticizing its negative ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Italy introduced its Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (National Health Service) in 1978. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • The positions of the world's major medical organizations range from considering elective circumcision of babies and children as having no benefit and significant risks to having a modest health benefit that outweighs small risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outside the parts of Africa with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, the positions of the world's major medical organizations on non-therapeutic neonatal circumcision range from considering it as having a modest net health benefit that outweighs small risks to viewing it as having no benefit with significant risks for harm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Germany has the world's oldest national social health insurance system, with origins dating back to Otto von Bismarck's Sickness Insurance Law of 1883. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1970s
  • Intermediate care facilities (small) were developed by the state categorical systems (intellectual disabilities, mental health), back in the 1970s, as a reaction to exposés on institutional conditions resulting in required active treatment in institutions and the new building of community facilities recommended under 16 in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the 1970s to the 2000s, Southern and Western European countries began introducing universal coverage, most of them building upon previous health insurance programs to cover the whole population. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1960s
  • Of course, this being the era from the late 1960s to the 1990s, health insurance was heavily regulated by most states, usually offered by nonprofit companies, and relatively inexpensive, so our "stupid" periods weren't usually particularly long or dangerous. (truth-out.org)
  • 1935
  • Japan introduced an employee health insurance law in 1927, expanding further upon it in 1935 and 1940. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1935, New York City's Health Department reported dozens of cases of septicemia from abortion per month. (gothamcenter.org)
  • 1933 first Air ambulance journey from Islay on a Midland Scottish Air Ferries flight to Glasgow 1934 Consultant surgeons established in Shetland, Orkney, Caithness & Lewis 1935 Consultant Physician appointed in Inverness 1936 Air ambulance service to Western Isles established 1936 Cathcart Report: "This service has revolutionised medical provision in the Highlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1989
  • An agreement effective August 1, 1989, between the United States and Portugal improves Social Security protection for people who work or have worked in both countries. (ssa.gov)
  • In addition, universal health coverage was introduced in some Asian countries, including South Korea (1989), Taiwan (1995), Israel (1995), and Thailand (2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • National health insurance (NHI) - sometimes called statutory health insurance (SHI) - is a system of health insurance that insures a national population against the costs of health care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Universal health care, (also referred to as universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care or socialized health care) usually refers to a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Soviet Union established a fully public and centralized health care system in 1920. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia retained and reformed its universal health care system, as did other former Soviet nations and Eastern bloc countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • General taxation revenue is the primary source of funding, but in many countries it is supplemented by specific levies (which may be charged to the individual and/or an employer) or with the option of private payments (by direct or optional insurance) for services beyond those covered by the public system. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result of her Soviet experience, Appel became thoroughly and permanently disillusioned with the Soviet system, and even more committed to providing safe and accessible health care for women in the United States. (gothamcenter.org)
  • We are confident that the Physicians' Proposal points the way toward a more comprehensive, efficient, and humane health care system. (pnhp.org)
  • The full extent of damage the PPACA causes to small businesses, the nation's economy, and the American health care system will only be revealed with time. (louisiana.gov)
  • It was tasked with building a national voluntary system of skill standards, assessment, and certification to enhance the ability of the United States workforce to compete effectively in the global economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • employer
  • Employer-sponsored health insurance costs have skyrocketed in the past decade, far above inflation or workers' wages. (truth-out.org)
  • Usually characterization is a matter of degree: systems are mixes of these three sources of funds (private, employer-employee contributions, and national/sub-national taxes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the agreement, if you work as an employee in the United States, you normally will be covered by the United States, and you and your employer will pay Social Security taxes only to the United States. (ssa.gov)
  • Remember, this study has nothing to do with employer-provided health insurance plans, this report involved the individual plans, paid by the individuals and those who do not have health insurance currently," Bohn said. (upi.com)
  • CNA was the first nurses union in the U.S. to win collective bargaining contracts for nurses when Shirley Carew Titusadvocated for agreements with the East Bay Hospital Conference for minimum salaries, time-and-a-half pay for overtime, shift differentials for night and weekend work, a 40-hour work week, paid holidays, vacations, and sick leave, and employer-paid health insurance. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • In the run-up to the 2016 Democratic National Convention, the Democratic Platform Committee approved a plank supporting the addition of a public option onto the Affordable Care Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membership in the clinic plan cost $4 per year for IWO insurance holders (approximately $68 in 2016 dollars), and included a gynecological exam, contraceptives, and follow-up exams. (gothamcenter.org)
  • National health expenditures are projected to grow 4.7% per person per year from 2016-2025. (wikipedia.org)
  • services
  • According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Privacy Rule promulgated as part of HIPAA, provides patients with access to their medical records and more control over how their personal health information is used and disclosed. (truth-out.org)
  • Requires Health and Human Services to create a non-subsidized public health insurance plan with pricing based on private industry averages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these amendments are: Family Planning Services and Population Research Act of 1970 Pub.L. 91-572, which established Title X of the Public Health Service Act, dedicated to providing family planning services for those in need. (wikipedia.org)
  • 113th Congress) is a bill in the 113th United States Congress that would amend the Public Health Service Act to reauthorize the Emergency Medical Services for Children Program through FY2019. (wikipedia.org)
  • Law 180 was based on the following main provisions: Psychiatric assistance was to be shifted away from mental hospitals to Community Mental Health Centres, newly organized in a sectorised or departmental manner to assure integrations and connections with services and community resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • They reported that 13 large institutions were certified as SNFs (skilled nursing facilities), that all were "absolutely inappropriate" placements for the developmental disabilities' clients (the federal GAO[clarification needed] then reported a need to upgrade services in the homes, including day services), and the facilities resembled the institutions that resulted in the national exposés of institutions such as Willowbrook in other fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is organized around providing a specified package of benefits to all members of a society with the end goal of providing financial risk protection, improved access to health services, and improved health outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Universal health care can be determined by three critical dimensions: who is covered, what services are covered, and how much of the cost is covered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Finance Center (NFC) is a federal government agency that provides human resources, financial and administrative services for agencies of the United States federal government. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a more technical sense, the term is used to describe any form of insurance that provides protection against the costs of medical services. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2008 systematic review found consistent evidence that health insurance increased utilization of services and improved health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, the State of Louisiana sent a letter to the federal Department of Health and Human Services declaring that the state declines to assume the risk of building a health insurance Exchange as outlined by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). (louisiana.gov)
  • Health Services Research, 45(4), 904-921. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report exposed inadequate medical and nursing services across large parts of the crofting counties and recommended a new way of delivering state funded medical services. (wikipedia.org)
  • The service also planned an expansion of nursing services with associated nursing accommodation, provide state support to the hospitals and specialists and purchase ambulances. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1919 administration moved to the Scottish Board of Health and in due course it was seen to be having the desired effect of providing adequate medical services to the population and supporting doctors to live and work in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • insurers
  • Establishes a Health Insurance Exchange (HIE) within a proposed Health Choices Administration, to provide a market place for insurers to sell qualifying plans on a public web site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The call was echoed by President Obama, who in an article for the American Medical Association stated that Congress "should revisit a public plan to compete alongside private insurers in areas of the country where competition is limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose behind the public option was to make more affordable health insurance for uninsured citizens who are either unable to afford the rates of or are rejected by private health insurers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more people within a state who had been shut out of the individual health insurance market before because of a pre-existing condition, or an illness, the more this pool of high-risk insurers will affect the individual plan's premium. (upi.com)
  • coverage
  • These funds (which may be run by public bodies, private for-profit companies, or private non-profit companies), must provide a minimum standard of coverage and are not allowed to discriminate between patients by charging different rates according to age, occupation, or previous health status. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CBO director subsequently noted that, in terms of total National Health Expenditure, non-governmental spending will increase as coverage expands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Universal health care is not one-size-fits-all and does not imply coverage for all people for everything. (wikipedia.org)
  • United Nations member states have agreed to work toward worldwide universal health coverage by 2030. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different health insurance provides different levels of financial protection and the scope of coverage can vary widely, with more than 40 percent of insured individuals reporting that their plans do not adequately meet their needs as of 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gallup issued a report in July 2014 stating that the uninsured rate for adults 18 and over declined from 18% in 2013 to 13.4% by in 2014, largely because there were new coverage options and market reforms under the Affordable Care Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the Supreme Court's decision in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Court agreed with the State of Louisiana that at least one of the over 450 provisions of the PPACA is unconstitutional and the provision requiring all individuals to have insurance coverage can only be upheld as a tax. (louisiana.gov)
  • Congress
  • 115TH CONGRESS 1ST SESSION H. R. 708 To amend title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act to change the permissible age variation in health insurance premium rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • 113th Congress) is a bill in the 113th United States Congress that would amend the Public Health Service Act to extend and reauthorize appropriations for payments to children's hospitals for expenses associated with operating approved graduate medical residency training programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • United States Congress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current version of the Public Health Service Act, as codified Original uncodified bill, as amended (8/5/2009) 78th U.S. Congress (May 23, 1944). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fair Deal was an ambitious set of proposals put forward by U.S. President Harry S. Truman to Congress in his January 1949 State of the Union address. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his 1949 State of the Union address to Congress on January 5, 1949, Truman stated that "Every segment of our population, and every individual, has a right to expect from his government a fair deal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Government
  • The President of the United States manages the operations of the Executive branch of Government through Executive orders. (federalregister.gov)
  • For example, your supposedly protected health information is subject to disclosure without your authorization for research or for essential government functions. (truth-out.org)
  • Essential government functions may include assuring proper execution of a military missions [and] conducting intelligence and national security activities. (truth-out.org)
  • To protect the interest of both patients and insurance companies, the government establishes an equalization pool to spread risks between the various funds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The government may also contribute to the equalization pool as a form of health care subsidy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supporters argued that a government insurance company could successfully lower its rates by using greater leverage than private industry when negotiating with hospitals and doctors, as well as paying the employees of the public option insurance company salaries as opposed to paying based on individual medical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2009, the United Kingdom suspended the Turks and Caicos Islands' self-government following allegations of ministerial corruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Louisiana Department of Health issued the rejection letter today to arrive by Friday, Nov. 16, which is the deadline the federal government gave states to declare their intentions. (louisiana.gov)
  • The government of the Republic of China announced its intention to donate US$1 million to a WHO health fund under the name Taiwan in April 2002. (wikipedia.org)
  • though the government applied as a "health entity," it did so under the name Taiwan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medicaid
  • In the United States, there are different kinds of residential "nursing" facilities (community facilities and institutional facilities) which have in common Medicaid federal funding and approvals through a state health department, no matter which categorical state department (e.g., intellectual disabilities, mental health, health) operates, staffs or oversees the facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citizens
  • In the first two bills, the public option took the form of a Qualified Health Benefit Plan competing with similar private insurance plans in an internet-based exchange or marketplace, enabling citizens and small businesses to purchase health insurance meeting a minimum federal standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • California
  • We were especially pleased by the "no" vote from our new home-state Sen. Kamala Harris of California. (blogspot.com)
  • The California Nurses Association/National Nurses Organizing Committee (CNA/NNOC), is a labor union and professional association of registered nurses in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • The California Nurses Association was formed in 1903 as the California State Nurses Association. (wikipedia.org)
  • practice
  • It is part of religious law in Judaism and is an established practice in Islam , Coptic Christianity , and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church . (wikipedia.org)
  • The standards include national validation of the specific job functions in best practice work sites which when the job is completed successfully. (wikipedia.org)
  • supposedly
  • In one piece in late 2015, Pompeo criticized Republican presidential candidates who were supposedly "weak" on national security and intelligence collection. (blogspot.com)
  • provide
  • In addition to direct medical costs, some national insurance plans also provide compensation for loss of work due to ill-health, or may be part of wider social insurance plans covering things such as pensions, unemployment, occupational retraining, and financial support for students. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extension of the United States Employment Service to provide jobs for demobilized military personnel. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • established the first known code of medical ethics, and laid down a fee schedule for specific surgical procedures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of at least equal concern is the fact that under HIPAA, medical providers are incorrectly informing their patients (and having them put their signatures to it) that the privacy of their health records is protected. (truth-out.org)
  • Mercy Killers is a one-man show that details the consequences of a medical health-care catastrophe (breast cancer) in a family. (ascopost.com)
  • The primary reasons for these insurance programs were not payment of medical expenses, but income stabilization and protection of wage loss when sick. (ascopost.com)
  • 38% of the constitutions of the members of the United Nations guarantee medical care. (ascopost.com)
  • Societal Darwinism may have cast its long shadow over health care in the United States in the form of medical Darwinism (survival of the fittest), hence the acceptance of unequal health care or health care as an entitlement rather than a human right. (ascopost.com)
  • Does the United States Need a Medical Revolution? (gothamcenter.org)
  • CNA/NNOC has drawn national attention for campaigns on behalf of patients denied medical treatment recommended by their physicians. (wikipedia.org)
  • survivors
  • The %age of survivors with 1 or more chronic health conditions prevalent in a adult human population was extraordinarily high. (inlineadz.com)
  • shut
  • By the end of the decade, information provided by the FBI helped New York State shut down the IWO, and 80 Fifth Avenue lost one of its most remarkable features: the IWO's flagship birth control clinic. (gothamcenter.org)
  • Department
  • In November, the Department of Health approved orlistat, and it became the first diet drug made without phenylpropanolamine to be marketed in Taiwan. (wikipedia.org)
  • After leaving the Department of Health, Lee continued efforts to admit Taiwan as a World Health Assembly observer. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1942 Beveridge Commission included Miss Muriel Ritson CBE of the Department of Health for Scotland. (wikipedia.org)