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  • STEC
  • Food-poisoning outbreaks due to Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are typically the result of transmission via raw or undercooked ground meat (thought to become contaminated during slaughter or processing) or contaminated salad ingredients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • genes
  • Results: The expression of genes encoding HSP was a very dynamic process evolving rapidly when E. coli cells were irradiated at 0.4 kGy. (inrs.ca)
  • Conclusions: For the seven genes studied there were more damaged proteins during irradn. (inrs.ca)
  • Expression patterns of genes encoding HSP in E. coli treated by γ-irradn. (inrs.ca)
  • gene
  • We have revisited the dispensability of the yjeE gene in E. coli and describe efforts to probe the function of the YjeE protein with in vitro biochemistry. (biochemj.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates if the gene coding for the protein originates from the hydrogenosome, the mitochondrion, the nucleomorph, different plastids or a plasmid. (uniprot.org)
  • This fact and the shape of the tree suggest either that isoforms of these proteins arose by gene duplication before the three domains of life split off from each other or that horizontal gene transfer has occurred between these domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vector is used to introduce a specific gene into a target cell, and can commandeer the cell's mechanism for protein synthesis to produce the protein encoded by the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression however may also be constitutive (i.e. protein is constantly expressed) in some expression vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the regulation to occur, the ada protein must be activated, which is a consequence of the DNA repair activity The alkA gene product is a glycosylase that can repair a variety of lesions, removing a base from the sugar-phosphate backbone, producing an abasic site. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown by gene deletion that GcvB is a regulator of acid resistance in E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATPase
  • We have looked critically for ATPase activity in the recombinant E. coli protein and have made vigilant use of site-directed variants in the Walker A [K41A (Lys 41 →Ala) and T42A] and putative Walker B (D80Q) motifs. (biochemj.org)
  • We noted that any hydrolysis of ATP by the wild-type E. coli protein might be attributed to background ATPase, since it was not appreciably different from that of the variants. (biochemj.org)
  • The SecY protein is the main transmembrane subunit of the eubacterial Sec or Type II secretory pathway and a protein-secreting ATPase complex, also known as a translocon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The translocase pathway comprises 7 proteins, including a chaperone protein (SecB), an ATPase (SecA), an integral membrane complex (SecY, SecE and SecG), and two additional membrane proteins that promote the release of the mature peptide into the periplasm (SecD and SecF). (wikipedia.org)
  • SecB maintains preproteins in an unfolded state after translation, and targets these to the peripheral membrane protein ATPase SecA for secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite possessing a second domain with some similarity to ATPase domains, dimeric HPt proteins have not been shown to bind or hydrolyze ATP and lack key residues present in other ATPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • DnaJ heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ATPase activity of Hsp70 heat-shock proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • The N-end rule is a rule that governs the rate of protein degradation through recognition of the N-terminal residue of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a complicating issue is that the first residue of bacterial proteins is normally expressed with an N-terminal formylmethionine (f-Met). (wikipedia.org)
  • This forms the proalbumin after the signal peptide is cleaved, and a further processing to remove the N-terminal 6-residue propeptide yields the mature form of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • For E. coli, fMet is efficiently removed if the second residue is small and uncharged, but not if the second residue is bulky and charged. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the exposed N-terminal residue may determine the half-life of the protein according to the N-end rule. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins possess a phosphorylatable histidine residue and are responsible for transferring a phosphoryl group from an aspartate residue on an intermediate "receiver" domain, typically part of a hybrid histidine kinase, to an aspartate on a final response regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • In orthodox two-component signaling, a histidine kinase protein autophosphorylates on a histidine residue in response to an extracellular signal, and the phosphoryl group is subsequently transferred to an aspartate protein on the receiver domain of a response regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ada protein can repair the damage by transferring methyl groups from O6-methylguanine or O4-methylthymine to Cys321 and also from methylphosphotriesters to Cys69 residue This process is irreversible. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • The translocase protein subunits are encoded on the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Left-handed) Steinbacher S, Seckler R, Miller S, Steipe B, Huber R and Reinemer P. (1994) "Crystal structure of P22 tailspike protein: interdigitated subunits in a thermostable trimer", Science, 265, 383-386. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia coli YhbY is associated with pre-50S ribosomal subunits, which implies a function in ribosome assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • The cloning process is normally performed in Escherichia coli, and vectors used for protein production in organisms other than E.coli may have, in addition to a suitable origin of replication for its propagation in E. coli, elements that allow them to be maintained in another organism, and these vectors are called shuttle vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different organisms may be used to express a gene's target protein, and the expression vector used will therefore have elements specific for use in the particular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original function has been suggested to be a nucleotide binding domain which was implicated in signal transduction As the USP domain is widespread across many organisms, there is great diversity in the structures of these proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion system
  • The human pathogens enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC), as well as the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium encode type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins to promote their survival in the infected host. (k-state.edu)
  • sequence
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • TC# 2.A.76.1.3) exhibits significant sequence similarity to YggA of E. coli (TC# 2.A.75.1.2), an established member of the LysE family (TC #2.A.75). (wikipedia.org)
  • This family of proteins contain a 70 amino acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide chain
  • Many viruses also produce their proteins initially as a single polypeptide chain that were translated from a polycistronic mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, a phosphorelay system is constructed from four separate proteins rather than a hybrid histidine kinase with an internal receiver domain, and in other examples both the receiver and the HPt domains are present in the histidine kinase polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • SecY is also encoded in the chloroplast genome of some algae where it could be involved in a prokaryotic-like protein export system across the two membranes of the chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum (CER) which is present in chromophyte and cryptophyte algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four long direct repeat (LDR) sequences were identified during genetic sequencing of a 718kb segment of the E. coli genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prediction
  • This list of protein subcellular localisation prediction tools includes software, databases, and web services that are used for protein subcellular localization prediction. (wikipedia.org)
  • These software related to protein structure prediction may also appear in lists of protein structure prediction software. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • to the source organism of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • However, only rough estimations of protein half-life can be deduced from this 'rule', as N-terminal amino acid modification can lead to variability and anomalies, whilst amino acid impact can also change from organism to organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In digestion of food, digestive enzymes may be released into the environment for extracellular digestion whereby proteolytic cleavage breaks down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids so that they may be absorbed and used by an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • In molecular biology, chaperone DnaJ, also known as Hsp40 (heat shock protein 40 kD), is a molecular chaperone protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial molecular chaperone DnaK is an enzyme that couples cycles of ATP binding, hydrolysis, and ADP release by an N-terminal ATP-hydrolizing domain to cycles of sequestration and release of unfolded proteins by a C-terminal substrate binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • efflux
  • At least one member (YebN of E. coli, TC# 2.A.107.1.1) has been shown to function as a putative manganese efflux pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of YajG, an Escherichia coli protein of unknown structure and function. (ac.be)
  • The structure of the Escherichia coli SecYEG assembly revealed a sandwich of two membranes interacting through the extensive cytoplasmic domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • TMS 7 may be close to TMSs 2 and 3 in the 3-D structure of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • A beta helix is a protein structure formed by the association of parallel beta strands in a helical pattern with either two or three faces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure is stabilized by inter-strand hydrogen bonds, protein-protein interactions, and sometimes bound metal ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introduction to Protein Structure 2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein folding occurs in the single-chain Proinsulin form which facilitates formation of the ultimately inter-peptide disulfide bonds, and the ultimately intra-peptide disulfide bond, found in the native structure of insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, when trypsinogen is cleaved to form trypsin, a slight rearrangement of the protein structure that completes the active site of the protease occurs, thereby activating the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the less common type, such as the Bacillus subtilis sporulation factor Spo0B or the Caulobacter crescentus protein ChpT, the bundle is assembled as a protein dimer, with similarity to the structure of histidine kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • The precursor to the final functional form of protein is termed proprotein, and these proproteins may be first synthesized as preproprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • It is also important in the regulation of some physiological and cellular processes, as well as preventing the accumulation of unwanted or abnormal proteins in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • integral
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Tmp21, a type-I integral membrane protein and COPI-vesicle receptor involved in trans-Golgi network function, as an NleF-binding partner. (k-state.edu)
  • helices
  • Other proteins that contain beta helices include the antifreeze proteins from the beetle Tenebrio molitor (right-handed) and from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (left-handed), where regularly spaced threonines on the β-helices bind to the surface of ice crystals and inhibit their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, β-helices can be used as "tags" to induce other proteins to associate, similar to coiled coil segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Proteolysis is important as an analytical tool for studying proteins in the laboratory, as well as industrially, for example in food processing and stain removal. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • The first two members of the RhtB family to be characterized functionally were the RhtB (TC# 2.A.76.1.1) and RhtC (TC# 2.A.76.1.2) permeases of E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • A representative list of proteins belonging to the RhtB family can be found in the Transporter Classification Database. (wikipedia.org)
  • RdlD RNA (regulator detected in LDR-D) is a family of small non-coding RNAs which repress the protein LdrD in a type I toxin-antitoxin system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name CRM (chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation) has been suggested to reflect the functions established for four characterised members of the family: Zea mays (Maize) CRS1, CAF1 and CAF2 proteins and the Escherichia coli protein YhbY. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that the USP A domain was part of an ancient protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aravind suggested that these proteins were part of a much larger protein structural family which was present and diversified in our last universal common ancestor for all extant life. (wikipedia.org)
  • domains
  • Cytoplasmic regions 2 and 3, and TM domains 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 10 are well conserved: the conserved cytoplasmic regions are believed to interact with cytoplasmic secretion factors, while the TM domains may participate in protein export. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histidine phosphotransfer domains and histidine phosphotransferases (both often abbreviated HPt) are protein domains involved in the "phosphorelay" form of two-component regulatory systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ubiquitous nature of these proteins suggests the domain evolved in an ancestral species as well as highlighting the clear biological significance these proteins have in order to still be present the three domains of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli there are six families of USP domains which are present in more than 1000 different proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • In the study described here, we have taken steps to characterize the YjeE protein, an Escherichia coli protein of unknown function that is essential for bacterial viability. (biochemj.org)
  • The histidine phosphotransfer function can be carried out by proteins with at least two different architectures, both composed of a four-helix bundle but differing in the way the bundle is assembled. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fifth Tat protein TatE that is homologous to the TatA protein is present at a much lower level in the cell than TatA and is not believed to play any significant role in Tat function. (wikipedia.org)
  • A CRM domain containing protein in plant chloroplasts has been shown to function in group I and II intron splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • STEC
  • Food-poisoning outbreaks due to Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are typically the result of transmission via raw or undercooked ground meat (thought to become contaminated during slaughter or processing) or contaminated salad ingredients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • genes
  • Results: The expression of genes encoding HSP was a very dynamic process evolving rapidly when E. coli cells were irradiated at 0.4 kGy. (inrs.ca)
  • Conclusions: For the seven genes studied there were more damaged proteins during irradn. (inrs.ca)
  • Expression patterns of genes encoding HSP in E. coli treated by γ-irradn. (inrs.ca)
  • bacteria
  • Your veterinarian may want to also rule out other conditions that can result in similar symptoms, including parasites, dietary-induced stress (including allergy or food intolerances), drug or toxin-induced stresses, and diseases like viral gastroenteritis or bacterial gastroenteritis caused by E. Coli or other common bacteria. (petmd.com)
  • Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that uses bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with the genetic information that encodes them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is often studied in the model organism E. coli, other bacteria show many similarities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with Stanley N. Cohen and Paul Berg he discovered a method to coax bacteria into producing foreign proteins, thereby jump starting the field of genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ncRNA was discovered in the bacteria Escherichia coli during a large scale computational screen for transcription signals and genomic features of known small RNA-encoding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), are proteins found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The encoded protein binds to 11-cis retinal and is activated when light hits the retinal molecule. (genecards.org)
  • By immobilizing a relevant DNA or protein target(s) to the surface of a microtiter plate well, a phage that displays a protein that binds to one of those targets on its surface will remain while others are removed by washing. (wikipedia.org)
  • GlmY functions as an anti-adaptor, it binds to RapZ (RNase adaptor protein for sRNA GlmZ), this binding prevents RapZ from binding to GlmZ and targeting it for cleavage by RNase E. Argaman L, Hershberg R, Vogel J, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • CsrC RNA binds multiple copies of CsrA, a protein that post-transcriptionally regulates central carbon flux, biofilm formation and motility in E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmids
  • The IncP-1 plasmid group (IncP plasmids in Escherichia coli) of which RK2 is a part has been described as "highly potent, self-transmissible, selfish DNA molecules with a complicated regulatory circuit" RK 2 was first isolated in connection with an outbreak of antibotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella aerogenes in Birmingham in 1969, as one of a family of plasmids implicated in transfer of Ampicillin resistance between bacterial strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two such mutants, PFF1cop254D and PFF1cop271C, increase the copy number of PFF1 in E. coli from approximately 39-40 to about 501 and 113 plasmids per cell, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MerC protein encoded on the IncJ plasmid pMERPH of the Shewanella putrefaciens mercuric resistance operon is 137 amino acids in length and possesses four putative transmembrane α-helical spanners (TMSs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The resemblance of the photo-reactive amino acids to the natural ones allows the former ones to avoid the extensive control mechanisms that take place during the protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • Photo Leucine, as well as another photo-reactive amino acid derived from Methionine, Photo-Methionine, were first synthesized in 2005 by Monika Suchanek, Anna Radzikoska and Christoph Thiele from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics with the objective of identifying protein to protein interaction throughout a simple western blot test that would provide high specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organism
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies
  • This technology was further developed and improved by groups at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology with Greg Winter and John McCafferty, The Scripps Research Institute with Lerner and Barbas and the German Cancer Research Center with Breitling and Dübel for display of proteins such as antibodies for therapeutic protein engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Mutational analysis of the Escherichia coli phosphate-specific transport system, a member of the traffic ATPase (or ABC) family of membrane transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in E. coli, the formate:ferricytochrome-b1 oxidoreductase is an intrinsic membrane protein with two subunits and is involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • There are 11 DnaA binding sites/boxes on the E. coli origin of replication out of which three boxes R1, R2 and R4 (which have a highly conserved 9 bp consensus sequence 5' - TTATC/ACACA ) are high affinity DnaA boxes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Escherichia coli, replication proceeds unidirectionally from oriV after activation by TrfA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Among its related pathways are Regulation of retinoblastoma protein and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • Mycobacterium
  • Subsequently, he studied the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium leprae using proteomics tools and discovered the single nucleotide polymorphism in the unique small alpha crystalline like heat shock protein in the gram-positive bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • In E. coli, multiple plasmid copies appear to cluster together, creating a few multiplasmid clusters in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • HMA domains of ~30 aas are found in MerP, copper chaperone proteins, mercuric reductase, and at the N-termini of both copper and heavy metal P-type ATPases, sometimes in multiple copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • 28 COMMON DEFECTS OF POLARIZATION ELEMENT Here we list some common defects found in real polarization elements.97 Myers, L. GlnA mutations conferring resistance to methylammonium in Escherichia coli K12. (imbc-med.ru)
  • transcription
  • The encoded protein acts as a transcription factor and may be autoregulatory. (genecards.org)
  • Promoters contain specific DNA sequences such as response elements that provide a secure initial binding site for RNA polymerase and for proteins called transcription factors that recruit RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions
  • Interactions are determined by geometric criteria as described in K. Stierand, M. Rarey (2010), Drawing the PDB: Protein-ligand complexes in two dimensions, ACS Med. (rcsb.org)
  • Like the two-hybrid system, phage display is used for the high-throughput screening of protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique is also used to determine tumour antigens (for use in diagnosis and therapeutic targeting) and in searching for protein-DNA interactions using specially-constructed DNA libraries with randomised segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-Photo-Leucine is a synthetic derivative of the L-Leucine amino acid that is used as its natural analog and is characterized for having photo-reactivity, which makes it suitable for observing and characterizing protein-protein interactions (PPI). (wikipedia.org)
  • In protein-protein interactions (PPI), this atom is attached to the complex formed by the two proteins susceptible of being under study. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • The encoded protein is a component of the interleukin-17 receptor signaling complex, and the interaction between this protein and IL-17R does not require the interleukin. (genecards.org)
  • cells
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibited protein synthesis destroys both the virus and infected host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Whey protein might also have effects on the immune system. (webmd.com)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)