• plasmid
  • These values represent absolute antibiotic concentrations of 30 ng/ml (tetracycline), less than 2 ng/ml (trimethoprim), and less than 200 ng/ml (erythromycin) for the chromosomally carried resistance compared to 45 ng/ml (tetracycline), 33 ng/ml (trimethoprim), and 3,000 ng/ml (erythromycin) when the corresponding resistance was present on the plasmid. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic reagents for generating plasmids containing multiples of a DNA segment are prepared by modification of the restriction sites of plasmid rings. (google.com)
  • The plasmid rings with modified restriction sites are also used in linear form to obtain head-to-tail joining of multiple DNA segments into plasmid rings for further cloning and/or expression of the DNA segment-directed protein. (google.com)
  • 5. A genetic reagent for generating plasmids containing multiple copies of DNA segments, comprising a pBR322 plasmid characterized by containing a sequence of three contiguous restriction sites in which the first and third sites are Ava I sites having non-symmetrically arranged base pairs, the second site is an EcoR I site, and said plasmid ring contains no other sites cleavable by either Ava I EcoR I restriction endonucleases. (google.com)
  • Chloramphenicol resistance may be carried on a plasmid that also codes for resistance to other drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • One example is the ACCoT plasmid (A=ampicillin, C=chloramphenicol, Co=co-trimoxazole, T=tetracycline), which mediates multiple drug resistance in typhoid (also called R factors). (wikipedia.org)
  • A bacterial host transformed by a plasmid harboring a triclosan-resistant mutant FabI gene (mFabI) as a selectable marker can grow in presence of high dose of triclosan in growth media. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Two different amplification products, which were approximately 750 and 1,700 bp in size, were obtained from amplified variable regions (in-F/in-R primers) in 3 (14.3%) and 4 (19%) of the EHEC isolates, which corresponded to dfrA7(dihydrofolate reductase type I) and dfrA1/aadA1(dihydrofolate reductase/aminoglycoside adenyltransferase) resistance gene cassettes, respectively, and this was confirmed by sequencing. (nih.gov)
  • The little data available on the genotyping patterns of EHEC isolates from cattle and their resistance gene contents emphasize the need to establish genotyping databases in order to monitor and source track the source of emergence and spread of new resistant and integron-carrying genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • Its environment may prolong bacterial survival as compared with other environments and, due to its high density of microorganisms, increase the probability of gene transfer (ADAMO and GEALT, 1996). (sfsu.edu)
  • and 2) the detection of RIF resistance-associated mutations of the rpoB gene. (jove.com)
  • Transduction is a common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cell's genome (both bacterial and mammalian cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Generalized transduction is the process by which any bacterial gene may be transferred to another bacterium via a bacteriophage, and very rarely a small number of phages carry the donor(bacterial genome)genome,(1 phage in 10.000 ones carry the donor genome). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently the gene mcr-1, which confers the antibiotic resistance, has been isolated from bacterial plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • For gene replacements or deletions, usually a cassette encoding a drug-resistance gene is made by PCR using bi-partite primers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance is caused by newly acquired genetic traits (by mutation or horizontal gene transfer) that are heritable and confer the ability to grow at elevated concentrations of antimicrobial drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotics
  • Discovery of antibiotics revolutionized modern medicine by protecting millions of people from life-threatening bacterial infections ( Ventola, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Though antibiotics underpin important medical advancements in the 20th century, development of resistance against their action to combat bacterial infections is increasingly common in recent years and thus, emerged as one of the greatest threats to human health ( Davies and Davies, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • New Haven, Conn, April 21, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) - Melinta Therapeutics, a privately held company developing novel antibiotics to treat serious bacterial infections, announced today that collaborators of the company have been invited to make a presentation on the company's development of a novel class of antibiotics called pyrrolocytosines during a moderated e-poster session. (stockguru.com)
  • An unfailing observation over the past 70 years is that resistance to all antibiotics emerges eventually after use in the clinic. (jove.com)
  • This prevalence of resistance, well before the use of antibiotics, denotes the importance of taking microbial chemical ecology and deep metagenomic profiling into account in the development and use of antibiotics. (jove.com)
  • 2 Effective diagnosis of pulmonary TB requires the availability - on a global scale - of standardized, easy-to-use, and robust diagnostic tools that would allow the direct detection of both the MTB complex and resistance to key antibiotics, such as rifampicin (RIF). (jove.com)
  • All β-lactam antibiotics (except for tabtoxinine-β-lactam, which inhibits glutamine synthetase) bind to PBPs, which are essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been a great deal of research into PBPs because of their role in antibiotics and resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance to antibiotics has come about through overproduction of PBPs and formation of PBPs that have low affinity for penicillins (among other mechanisms such as lactamase production). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it still detectably increases the permeability of the bacterial cell wall to other antibiotics, indicating that it still causes some degree of membrane disorganization. (wikipedia.org)
  • survival
  • In particular, little is known regarding how A. pleuropneumoniae confers resistance against bactericidal substances for survival and spread within the host. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genome
  • The packaging of bacteriophage DNA has low fidelity and small pieces of bacterial DNA, together with the bacteriophage genome, may become packaged into the bacteriophage genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • The binding of ciprofloxacin to serum proteins is 20% to 40%, which is not likely to be high enough to cause significant protein binding interactions with other drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Presence of the protein penicillin binding protein 2A (PBP2A) is responsible for the antibiotic resistance seen in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (wikipedia.org)
  • He has isolated a bacterial protein, azurin, with potential antineoplastic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimicrobials
  • These compounds are based on a molecular scaffold that was rationally designed for high binding affinity to a site on the bacterial ribosome not exploited by other commercially available antimicrobials. (stockguru.com)
  • bactericidal
  • Fosfomycin is bactericidal and inhibits bacterial cell wall biogenesis by inactivating the enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-3-enolpyruvyltransferase, also known as MurA. (wikipedia.org)
  • colistin
  • Colistin is a decades-old drug that fell out of favor in human medicine due to its kidney toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because colistin was introduced into clinical practice over 50 years ago, it was never subject to the regulations that modern drugs are subject to, and therefore there is no standardised dosing of colistin and no detailed trials on pharmacology or pharmacokinetics: The optimal dosing of colistin for most infections is therefore unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also featured mcr-1, which means "mechanism of colistin resistance. (stockguru.com)
  • Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptidoglycan
  • Penicillin irreversibly blocks bacterial cell wall synthesis by inhibiting the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links. (wikibooks.org)
  • The cell wall of the bacterium is weakened even further because the build-up of peptidoglycan precursors triggers bacterial cell wall hydrolysis and autolysins, and destroys pre-existing peptidoglycan. (wikibooks.org)
  • PBPs are all involved in the final stages of the synthesis of peptidoglycan, which is the major component of bacterial cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Like other NRPs, polymyxins are assembled by synthetases with multiple modules, each containing a set of enzyme domains that sequentially operate on the growing chain by adding the next residue and extending the chain through peptide-bond formation and condensation reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The proposed research program is intended to develop new and improved diagnostic methods and related materials and tools as systems for rapid, sensitive and definitive detection, diagnosis and characterization of some of the most important causes of infectious bacterial and viral diarrhea. (osu.edu)
  • There are generally three types of recombination events that can lead to this incorporation of bacterial DNA into the viral DNA, leading to two modes of recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • In essence, this is the packaging of bacterial DNA into a viral envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • If by chance bacterial chromosomal DNA is inserted into the viral capsid which is usually used to encapsulate the viral DNA, the mistake will lead to generalized transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Removal of the hydrophobic tail of polymyxin B yields polymyxin nonapeptide, which still binds to LPS, but no longer kills the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • environments
  • Bacterial morphological plasticity refers to changes in the shape and size that bacterial cells undergo when they encounter stressful environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast persisters are triggered in a small subset of unperturbed exponentially growing cells by spontaneously occurring DNA damage, which leads to the activation of a general stress response and protection against a range of harsh drug and stress environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • FosC uses ATP and adds a phosphate group to fosfomycin, thus altering its properties and making the drug ineffective. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Using Ruxolitinib and JAK2 as a drug target pair, here we describe in vitro screening methods that utilizes the mouse BAF3 cells expressing the random mutation library of JAK2 kinase. (jove.com)
  • A high mutation rate correlated stronglywith a clinical resistance phenotype. (diva-portal.org)
  • This thesis is focused on how mutation rate affects resistance to fluoroquinolones and on exploring a dosing strategy that might slow resistance development. (diva-portal.org)
  • ribosome
  • We have a deep familiarity with the bacterial ribosome that is unique in the industry. (stockguru.com)
  • Melinta scientists have identified structural changes to the macrolide backbone that cause it to build into an adjacent binding site of the ribosome, gaining affinity away from known sites of resistance and thereby overcoming them. (stockguru.com)
  • ciprofloxacin
  • The tablets contain a combination of two types of ciprofloxacin drug substance, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and ciprofloxacin betaine (base). (nih.gov)
  • Ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets are formulated to release drug at a slower rate compared to immediate-release tablets. (nih.gov)