• genes
  • As these resistance genes on the chromosome do not confer any significant fitness costs, the MSC values approach zero, making the MSC values for trimethoprim and erythromycin uncertain in this low range. (nih.gov)
  • The reagents have utility in preparing multiples of protein-forming genes, and in preparing large amounts of homogeneous DNAs which can themselves be used as reagents. (google.com)
  • The field of this invention relates to the introduction of DNA segments, which may be genes, into bacterial plasmids, and the use of the resulting recombinant plasmids for bacterial cloning of the plasmids and/or expression of the proteins directed by the recombinant DNAs. (google.com)
  • These acquired resistance genes were located on a different plasmid than the one that harbored the MCR-1 gene. (umn.edu)
  • While only one isolate was identified among pigs, the presence of a MCR-1 and other resistance genes in a pathogen that spreads quickly in humans raises significant public health concerns, given that enteric pathogens on farm animals can spill over to humans. (umn.edu)
  • Quinolone resistance in Gram-negative pathogens is usually acquired by chromosomal mutations, primarily in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the target genes, gyrA and gyrB, which encode DNA gyrase, and parC and parE, which encode topoisomerase IV. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacterial pathogens that will be used as a marker to subtype and track distinct multi-drug resistant diarrheal pathogenic strains. (osu.edu)
  • Bacterial sRNAs effect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can effect a variety of bacterial functions like metabolism, virulence, environmental stress response, and structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now known that most bacterial sRNAs are encoded by free-standing genes located in the intergenic regions (IGR) between two known genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, some phage genes are left behind in the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized transduction is the process by which a restricted set of bacterial genes is transferred to another bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized transduction occurs when the prophage excises imprecisely from the chromosome so that bacterial genes lying adjacent to the prophage are included in the excised DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • By irradiating the transformed organism with UV light after plasmid transfer, Prof. Chakrabarty discovered a method for genetic cross-linking that fixed all four plasmid genes in place and produced a new, stable, bacterial species (now called Pseudomonas putida) capable of consuming oil one or two orders of magnitude faster than the previous four strains of oil-eating microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an intrinsic mechanism of resistance, efflux pump genes can survive a hostile environment (for example in the presence of antibiotics) which allows for the selection of mutants that over-express these genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Indeed, rates of S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin now exceed 40% in many regions, and a high proportion of these strains are also resistant to macrolides. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • That the use of any antibacterial agent or class of agents over time will result either in the development of resistance to these agents or in the emergence of new pathogenic strains that are intrinsically resistant is now widely accepted. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • And although China banned use of the drug in food-producing animals in 2016, the authors fear that use of other antibiotics on farms could co-select for these strains. (umn.edu)
  • genetics
  • Recombineering is widely used for bacterial genetics, in the generation of target vectors for making a conditional mouse knockout, and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmids
  • 2011). from the genome upon the relaxation of selection during Acaryochloris genomes also contain multiple plasmids laboratory study (Sandegren and Andersson 2009). (deepdyve.com)
  • Enzymes conferring resistance to fosfomycin have also been identified and are encoded both chromosomally and on plasmids. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is usually attributed to the following: The genetic elements encoding efflux pumps may be encoded on chromosomes and/or plasmids, thus contributing to both intrinsic (natural) and acquired resistance respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Two different amplification products, which were approximately 750 and 1,700 bp in size, were obtained from amplified variable regions (in-F/in-R primers) in 3 (14.3%) and 4 (19%) of the EHEC isolates, which corresponded to dfrA7(dihydrofolate reductase type I) and dfrA1/aadA1(dihydrofolate reductase/aminoglycoside adenyltransferase) resistance gene cassettes, respectively, and this was confirmed by sequencing. (nih.gov)
  • The little data available on the genotyping patterns of EHEC isolates from cattle and their resistance gene contents emphasize the need to establish genotyping databases in order to monitor and source track the source of emergence and spread of new resistant and integron-carrying genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • 1996), have an detection due to the transient nature of many gene dupli- extraordinarily large number of recent gene duplicates com- cates in microorganisms, which may be rapidly deleted pared with other bacterial genomes (Miller et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Its environment may prolong bacterial survival as compared with other environments and, due to its high density of microorganisms, increase the probability of gene transfer (ADAMO and GEALT, 1996). (sfsu.edu)
  • Transduction is a common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cell's genome (both bacterial and mammalian cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Generalized transduction is the process by which any bacterial gene may be transferred to another bacterium via a bacteriophage, and very rarely a small number of phages carry the donor(bacterial genome)genome,(1 phage in 10.000 ones carry the donor genome). (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance is caused by newly acquired genetic traits (by mutation or horizontal gene transfer) that are heritable and confer the ability to grow at elevated concentrations of antimicrobial drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • For gene replacements or deletions, usually a cassette encoding a drug-resistance gene is made by PCR using bi-partite primers. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • WHO's (2014) report on AMR also states that extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has increased to 9.2% among the reported MDR-TB cases, wherein, drugs like rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and isoniazid have become ineffective against the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (frontiersin.org)
  • Genome
  • If the lysogen is induced (by UV light for example), the phage genome is excised from the bacterial chromosome and initiates the lytic cycle, which culminates in lysis of the cell and the release of phage particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The packaging of bacteriophage DNA has low fidelity and small pieces of bacterial DNA, together with the bacteriophage genome, may become packaged into the bacteriophage genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • If the lysogenic cycle is adopted, the phage chromosome is integrated (by covalent bonds) into the bacterial chromosome, where it can remain dormant for thousands of generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the new DNA matches with a homologous region of the recipient cell's chromosome, it will exchange DNA material similar to the actions in bacterial recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under this mechanism, daughter cells are protected from receiving damaged copies of the bacterial chromosome, and at the same time promoting bacterial survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • In the presence of single-stranded DNA regions, due to the action of different external cues (that induce mutations), the major bacterial recombinase (RecA) binds to this DNA regions and is activated by the presence of free nucleotide triphosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance-conferring mutations of the 50S ribosomal subunit are rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • If by chance bacterial chromosomal DNA is inserted into the viral capsid which is usually used to encapsulate the viral DNA, the mistake will lead to generalized transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neisseria
  • Chloramphenicol is active against the three main bacterial causes of meningitis: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Like other NRPs, polymyxins are assembled by synthetases with multiple modules, each containing a set of enzyme domains that sequentially operate on the growing chain by adding the next residue and extending the chain through peptide-bond formation and condensation reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • colistin
  • Colistin is a decades-old drug that fell out of favor in human medicine due to its kidney toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because colistin was introduced into clinical practice over 50 years ago, it was never subject to the regulations that modern drugs are subject to, and therefore there is no standardised dosing of colistin and no detailed trials on pharmacology or pharmacokinetics: The optimal dosing of colistin for most infections is therefore unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The proposed research program is intended to develop new and improved diagnostic methods and related materials and tools as systems for rapid, sensitive and definitive detection, diagnosis and characterization of some of the most important causes of infectious bacterial and viral diarrhea. (osu.edu)
  • There are generally three types of recombination events that can lead to this incorporation of bacterial DNA into the viral DNA, leading to two modes of recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • In essence, this is the packaging of bacterial DNA into a viral envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • But what wasn't known was that HVEM is critically important in turning on the epithelial cell anti-bacterial response. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Fosfomycin enters the bacterial cell through the glycerophosphate transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • PBPs are all involved in the final stages of the synthesis of peptidoglycan, which is the major component of bacterial cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new virus capsule now loaded with part bacterial DNA continues to infect another bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, his lab is working on elucidating the role of bacterial cupredoxins and cytochromes in cancer regression and arresting cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removal of the hydrophobic tail of polymyxin B yields polymyxin nonapeptide, which still binds to LPS, but no longer kills the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • environments
  • Bacterial morphological plasticity refers to changes in the shape and size that bacterial cells undergo when they encounter stressful environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast persisters are triggered in a small subset of unperturbed exponentially growing cells by spontaneously occurring DNA damage, which leads to the activation of a general stress response and protection against a range of harsh drug and stress environments. (wikipedia.org)