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  • Pseudomonas
  • DORIBAX® (doripenem for injection) is indicated as a single agent for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides caccae, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus and Peptostreptococcus micros . (rxlist.com)
  • DORIBAX® (doripenem for injection) is indicated as a single agent for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli including cases with concurrent bacteremia , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii . (rxlist.com)
  • Typical uses are for infections caused by strains of multiple drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Recombineering is widely used for bacterial genetics, in the generation of target vectors for making a conditional mouse knockout, and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Since the existence of the MCR-1 gene was first reported in Escherichia coli samples from pigs, pork products, and humans in China in 2015, it has been detected in more 30 countries. (umn.edu)
  • Two different amplification products, which were approximately 750 and 1,700 bp in size, were obtained from amplified variable regions (in-F/in-R primers) in 3 (14.3%) and 4 (19%) of the EHEC isolates, which corresponded to dfrA7(dihydrofolate reductase type I) and dfrA1/aadA1(dihydrofolate reductase/aminoglycoside adenyltransferase) resistance gene cassettes, respectively, and this was confirmed by sequencing. (nih.gov)
  • The little data available on the genotyping patterns of EHEC isolates from cattle and their resistance gene contents emphasize the need to establish genotyping databases in order to monitor and source track the source of emergence and spread of new resistant and integron-carrying genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • 1996), have an detection due to the transient nature of many gene dupli- extraordinarily large number of recent gene duplicates com- cates in microorganisms, which may be rapidly deleted pared with other bacterial genomes (Miller et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Transduction is a common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cell's genome (both bacterial and mammalian cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Generalized transduction is the process by which any bacterial gene may be transferred to another bacterium via a bacteriophage, and very rarely a small number of phages carry the donor(bacterial genome)genome,(1 phage in 10.000 ones carry the donor genome). (wikipedia.org)
  • For gene replacements or deletions, usually a cassette encoding a drug-resistance gene is made by PCR using bi-partite primers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance is caused by newly acquired genetic traits (by mutation or horizontal gene transfer) that are heritable and confer the ability to grow at elevated concentrations of antimicrobial drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • In the presence of single-stranded DNA regions, due to the action of different external cues (that induce mutations), the major bacterial recombinase (RecA) binds to this DNA regions and is activated by the presence of free nucleotide triphosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance-conferring mutations of the 50S ribosomal subunit are rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • WHO's (2014) report on AMR also states that extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has increased to 9.2% among the reported MDR-TB cases, wherein, drugs like rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and isoniazid have become ineffective against the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (frontiersin.org)
  • Genome
  • If the lysogen is induced (by UV light for example), the phage genome is excised from the bacterial chromosome and initiates the lytic cycle, which culminates in lysis of the cell and the release of phage particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The packaging of bacteriophage DNA has low fidelity and small pieces of bacterial DNA, together with the bacteriophage genome, may become packaged into the bacteriophage genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • virulence
  • The AcrAB efflux system of Erwinia amylovora is important for this organism's virulence, plant (host) colonization, and resistance to plant toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • If the lysogenic cycle is adopted, the phage chromosome is integrated (by covalent bonds) into the bacterial chromosome, where it can remain dormant for thousands of generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the new DNA matches with a homologous region of the recipient cell's chromosome, it will exchange DNA material similar to the actions in bacterial recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under this mechanism, daughter cells are protected from receiving damaged copies of the bacterial chromosome, and at the same time promoting bacterial survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Considering E. coli as a case in point, this review explains the structure and functional roles of proteins involved in Group 1 Wzy dependent CPS biosynthesis, surface expression and anchorage in relevance to drug and vaccine developments. (frontiersin.org)
  • These proteins have been formerly known for their involvement in bacterial electron transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that typically stops bacterial growth by stopping the production of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • They include monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), multiple drug resistance proteins (MDRs)- also referred as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), peptide transporters (PEPTs), and Na+ phosphate transporters (NPTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus
  • Chloramphenicol is active against the three main bacterial causes of meningitis: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • 128 μg/ml Streptococcus pneumoniae: 2-16 μg/ml Each of these concentrations is dependent upon the bacterial strain being targeted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin and other beta-lactams is increasing worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Fosfomycin is a PEP analog that inhibits MurA by alkylating an active site cysteine residue (Cys 115 in the Escherichia coli enzyme). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other NRPs, polymyxins are assembled by synthetases with multiple modules, each containing a set of enzyme domains that sequentially operate on the growing chain by adding the next residue and extending the chain through peptide-bond formation and condensation reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • If by chance bacterial chromosomal DNA is inserted into the viral capsid which is usually used to encapsulate the viral DNA, the mistake will lead to generalized transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • colistin
  • Colistin is a decades-old drug that fell out of favor in human medicine due to its kidney toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because colistin was introduced into clinical practice over 50 years ago, it was never subject to the regulations that modern drugs are subject to, and therefore there is no standardised dosing of colistin and no detailed trials on pharmacology or pharmacokinetics: The optimal dosing of colistin for most infections is therefore unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymyxins B and E (also known as colistin) are used in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The proposed research program is intended to develop new and improved diagnostic methods and related materials and tools as systems for rapid, sensitive and definitive detection, diagnosis and characterization of some of the most important causes of infectious bacterial and viral diarrhea. (osu.edu)
  • There are generally three types of recombination events that can lead to this incorporation of bacterial DNA into the viral DNA, leading to two modes of recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • In essence, this is the packaging of bacterial DNA into a viral envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The X-ray structure of the NorM was determined to 3.65 Å, revealing an outward-facing conformation with two portals open to the outer leaflet of the membrane and a unique topology of the predicted 12 transmembrane helices distinct from any other known multidrug resistance transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • They work mostly by breaking up the bacterial cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • But what wasn't known was that HVEM is critically important in turning on the epithelial cell anti-bacterial response. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Fosfomycin enters the bacterial cell through the glycerophosphate transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • PBPs are all involved in the final stages of the synthesis of peptidoglycan, which is the major component of bacterial cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new virus capsule now loaded with part bacterial DNA continues to infect another bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, his lab is working on elucidating the role of bacterial cupredoxins and cytochromes in cancer regression and arresting cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removal of the hydrophobic tail of polymyxin B yields polymyxin nonapeptide, which still binds to LPS, but no longer kills the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • efflux pump
  • 13) In order to overcome resistance due to overexpressions of efflux pump, efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) were used by different functions, (4) some of these EPIs affect antibiotic efflux not by inhibiting the pump but rather by competing favorably with the antibiotic for extrusion. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Infections
  • In 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a warning to the company for failing to promptly report the bacterial infections even though it was aware of them in November 2012. (mobileaspects.com)
  • 2004). Regarding the central role of QS for the infectious process, the interruption of these pathways by blocking the receptors or inhibiting the signal synthesis via small molecules is an attractive therapeutic strategy to attenuate the bacterial pathogenicity, thereby overcoming intractable P. aeruginosa infections (Rasmussen and Givskov 2006). (springer.com)
  • Intestinal inflammation is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and with some bacterial GI infections, but it is not associated with many other disorders that affect bowel function and cause similar symptoms. (labtestsonline.org)
  • These include the antibiotics of the carbapenem family, which are a mainstay for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, IFN-α can be used to treat hepatitis B and C infections, while IFN-β can be used to treat multiple sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is largely responsible for the inability to eradicate bacterial infections with antibiotic treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections can be further classified by causative agent (bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic), and by the presence or absence of systemic symptoms (sepsis). (wikipedia.org)
  • He is one of the founders of the emerging field of synthetic biology, and has made multiple synthetic biology breakthroughs in biotechnology and biomedicine, including paper-based diagnostics for Zika & Ebola and programmable cells that serve as living diagnostics and living therapeutics to detect-and-treat infections, rare genetic metabolic disorders, and inflammatory bowel disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first members of the quinolone antibacterial class were relatively low potency drugs such as nalidixic acid, used mainly in the treatment of urinary tract infections owing to their renal excretion and propensity to be concentrated in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • swine
  • In the context of intensive pig production, postweaning colibacillosis (PWC) remains one of the most problematic bacterial diseases still occurring endemically in swine production units worldwide. (aasv.org)
  • antimicrobial drugs
  • Persister cells have entered a non- or extremely slow-growing physiological state which makes them insensitive (refractory or tolerant) to the action of antimicrobial drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • An opportunistic disease requires impairment of host defenses, which may occur as a result of genetic defects (such as Chronic granulomatous disease), exposure to antimicrobial drugs or immunosuppressive chemicals (as might occur following poisoning or cancer chemotherapy), exposure to ionizing radiation, or as a result of an infectious disease with immunosuppressive activity (such as with measles, malaria or HIV disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sclerosis
  • The previous results in an inhibition of Th2 immune response and a further induction of Th1 immune response, which leads to the development of debilitating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Since vaccinations resulting in both Th1- and Th2-type responses have been shown to contribute to protective immunity, a vaccine formulation with the capacity for stimulating multiple arms of the immune response will likely be the most effective. (biomedcentral.com)
  • immunosuppressive
  • The increase in average age of the population, more people with chronic diseases, on immunosuppressive drugs, and increase in the number of invasive procedures being performed has led to an increased rate of sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • range
  • Yeast persisters are triggered in a small subset of unperturbed exponentially growing cells by spontaneously occurring DNA damage, which leads to the activation of a general stress response and protection against a range of harsh drug and stress environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • M anagement of antimicrobial drug resistance has become a major global imperative. (aasv.org)
  • In 2008, Prof. Chakrabarty co-founded a second biopharmaceutical discovery company, Amrita Therapeutics Ltd., registered in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, to develop therapies, vaccines, and diagnostics effective against cancers and/or other major public health threats derived from bacterial products found in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • PBPs are all involved in the final stages of the synthesis of peptidoglycan, which is the major component of bacterial cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • It is mechanistically distinct from multidrug resistance: It is not caused by mutant microbes, but rather by microbial cells that exist in a transient, dormant, non-dividing state. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • The packaging of bacteriophage DNA has low fidelity and small pieces of bacterial DNA, together with the bacteriophage genome, may become packaged into the bacteriophage genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Vaccination with radiation-attenuated cercariae induced significant levels of resistance to schistosome challenge via Th1- and Th2-mediated responses in animal models of disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lead
  • The CBE integrates faculty from multiple university departments to lead multidisciplinary research teams-including graduate and undergraduate students-to advance fundamental biofilm knowledge, develop beneficial uses for microbial biofilms, and find solutions to industrially relevant biofilm problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs of established sepsis include confusion, metabolic acidosis (which may be accompanied by faster breathing and lead to a respiratory alkalosis), low blood pressure due to decreased systemic vascular resistance, higher cardiac output, and dysfunctions of blood coagulation (where clotting may lead to organ failure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Method
  • ASTM International Standard Test Method for Resistance of Emulsion Paints in the Container to Attack by Microorganisms. (atcc.org)
  • Standard Test Method for Efficacy of Slimicides for the Paper Industry-Bacterial and Fungal Slime. (atcc.org)