• Proteins
  • Since the GAD 67 isoform is highly homologous to GAD 65 but is usually not a target of the GAD autoantibodies in IDDM sera, we created six GAD 65 /GAD 67 chimeric proteins to maintain the overall GAD protein conformation and used these chimeric proteins to map conformation-dependent epitopes of GAD 65 targeted by IDDM sera. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although epitopes are usually non-self proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized (as in the case of autoimmune diseases) are also epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptides can also be bound by proteins that form covalent bonds to the peptide, allowing irreversible immobilisation These strategies have also been successfully applied to the development of "epitope-focused" vaccine design. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epitope mapping of complex target antigens, such as membrane proteins or multi-subunit proteins, is often challenging because of the difficulty in expressing and purifying these types of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the topology of a cell membrane has yet to be determined, epitope insertion into proteins can be used in conjunction with immunofluorescence to determine structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Hence, screening for the identification of the topographical repertoire of B-cell epitopes that elicit cross-protective immune response seems essential in the engineering of a superior PspA-based vaccine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herein, we revisit epitope identification in PspA and the utility of hybridoma technology in directing the identification of protective epitope regions of PspA that can be used in vaccine research. (frontiersin.org)
  • affinity
  • This leads to a greater expansion of the T cells that recognize a high affinity epitope and is favoured since these cells are likely to clear the infection much more quickly and effectively than their subdominant counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of immunodominance in B cell activation focuses on the affinity of epitope binding to the B-cell receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the opposite end of the scale where BCRs have low affinity for the epitopes, these B cells are outcompeted for stimulation by B cells with BCRs that have higher affinities for their respective epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, those within the 'goldilocks zone' for affinity will be available for subsequent T helper stimulation, allowing for class switching, affinity maturation and thus, resulting in immunodominance to that particular epitope. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunology
  • In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) is a project hosted by scientists at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LIAI), with support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (wikipedia.org)
  • mAbs
  • Epitope mapping is an important component in the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, epitope mapping can allow determination of the therapeutic mechanism of action of individual mAbs e.g. blocking ligand binding or trapping a protein in a non-functional state. (wikipedia.org)
  • plural
  • Still, because of the two possible epitopes and the different carrier structures, the plural CCDs is in frequent use even though core α1,3-fucose appears to be the single culprit. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • In the case of p53, the induction of autoantibodies is thought to be induced by increased expression and presentation caused by somatic mutations, although these mutations are often not included in the epitopes bound by antibodies ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • bind
  • The GAD autoantibodies of IDDM are specific for the GAD 65 isoform, do not bind denatured GAD protein, and target epitope(s) dependent on conformation of the protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, the IDDM epitopes have been difficult to further define because the antibodies do not bind GAD protein fragments or synthetic peptides. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • therapeutic
  • The finding of epitope spreading adds to the growing list of therapeutic mechanisms associated with live Lm therapy. (drugs.com)
  • Epitope data has been central to several high-profile legal cases involving disputes over the specific protein regions targeted by therapeutic antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • predict
  • In addition to the database, the IEDB website hosts an Analysis Resource, which contains a collection of tools to predict and analyze epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • repertoire
  • Identification of epitopes targeted by IDDM sera may allow one to distinguish between GAD antibody-positive individuals at high and low risk of developing IDDM and to determine if differences in the autoimmune repertoire directed at GAD are present. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, self epitopes which appear in very low concentration on APC are termed cryptic in the sense that they do not delete autoreactive T-cells which will then join the peripheral adult T cell repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • The first two, GAD114-123 ( 8 ) and insulin B chain 22-30 ( 9 ), were chosen for study based on homology to known NOD CD4 + T-cell epitopes and then confirmed by culturing and expanding CD8 + T-cells in vitro from the peripheral blood of HLA-A*0201 and HLA-A*2402 type 1 diabetic patients, respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • peptides
  • We identified peptides IAPP9-17, IGRP215-223, IGRP152-160, islet IA-2(172-180), and IA-2(482-490) as novel HLA-A*0201-restricted T-cell epitopes in type 1 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The epitope mapping resolution here depends on the number of overlapping peptides that are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • In addition to verifying antibody patentability, epitope mapping data has also been used to support broad antibody claims submitted to the United States Patent and Trademark Office. (wikipedia.org)
  • The database also contains MHC binding data from a variety of different antigenic sources and immune epitope data from the FIMM (Brusic), HLA Ligand (Hildebrand), TopBank (Sette), and MHC binding (Buus) databases. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Common epitopes used for this purpose are Myc-tag, HA-tag, FLAG-tag, GST-tag, 6xHis and OLLAS. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991, Japanese researchers determined the structure of the epitope common to horseradish peroxidase and Drosophila neurons as being an asparagine-linked oligosaccharide (N-glycan) containing a xylose and a core-linked α1,3-linked fucose residue. (wikipedia.org)
  • database
  • The Center for Infectious Disease is home to the world's largest database on how the immune system responds to infectious diseases, the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB). (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • The ECS epitope tag is commonly engineered onto the N- or C- terminus of a protein of interest so that the tagged protein can be analyzed and visualized using immunochemical methods. (novusbio.com)
  • different
  • We detected cancer-associated IgG autoantibodies in sera from breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer patients against different aberrent O-glycopeptide epitopes derived from MUC1. (aacrjournals.org)