• dura mater
  • The epidural space, which lies between the dura mater and the bony vertebra, is filled with fat and blood vessels. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • The root cause of the condition is not entirely clear, and it appears to have multiple causes, including iatrogenic cause from misplaced epidural steroid injection therapy when accidentally administered intrathecally (inside the dura mater, the sac enveloping the arachnoid mater), or from contrast media used in myelography prior to the introduction of Metrizamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • spine
  • Spinal disc herniation, also known as a slipped disc, is a medical condition affecting the spine in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical causes may include osteoarthritis, degeneration of the discs between the vertebrae or a spinal disc herniation, broken vertebra(e) (such as from osteoporosis) or, rarely, an infection or tumor of the spine. (wikipedia.org)
  • vertebrae
  • The condition is widely referred to as a slipped disc, ( No longer ) but this term is not medically accurate as the spinal discs are firmly attached between the vertebrae and cannot "slip" out of place. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • Without imaging, the risk increases for the injection to be incorrectly placed, and this would in turn lower the therapy's efficacy and increase subsequent risk of need for more treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • physicians
  • The types of physicians who administer epidural steroid injections include physiatrists (PM&R), radiologists, anesthesiologists, neurologists, and surgeons. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • The epidural route is frequently employed by certain physicians and nurse anaesthetists to administer diagnostic (e.g. radiocontrast agents) and therapeutic (e.g., glucocorticoids) chemical substances, as well as certain analgesic and local anaesthetic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • The pain relief can last from days to years, allowing your spinal condition to improve with physical therapy and an exercise program. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Irritation, pain, and swelling occur when this material squeezes out and comes in contact with a spinal nerve. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • How sucessfull are spinal fusions for reliving constant back pain. (healthtap.com)
  • Epidural steroid injections to treat sciatic pain have been linked as a cause of the disease by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as well as in other research, and are therefore discouraged as a treatment for Arachnoiditis as they will most likely worsen the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • An epidural injection or infusion for pain relief (e.g. in childbirth) is less likely to cause loss of muscle power, but has to be augmented to be sufficient for surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injection of analgesics and steroids into the epidural space may improve some forms of back pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • surgery
  • Success rates of spinal surgery vary for many reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • These optimistic reports do not correlate with "return to competitive employment" rates, which for the most part are dismal in most spinal surgery series. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior spinal surgery has been documented as a cause of arachnoiditis ossificans, as well as for the adhesive form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidural analgesia may be used: For analgesia alone, where surgery is not contemplated. (wikipedia.org)
  • canal
  • Tears are almost always postero-lateral (on the back of the sides) owing to the presence of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the spinal canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • local
  • Epidural anesthesia can be continued for longer duration during longer surgeries by either giving top ups of local anesthetics or by continuous infusion of local anesthetics by infusion pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • side effects
  • Additionally, some of the side-effects of epidural analgesia may be beneficial in some circumstances (e.g., vasodilation may be beneficial if the subject has peripheral vascular disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Another study found an increased odds of developing epidural lipomatosis, independent of BMI or other factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • found that a concomitant spinal arthrodesis (fusion) had a greater success rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • benefit
  • When medical imaging is not used to determine the proper spot for injection, ESI benefits appear to be of short term benefit when used in sciatica. (wikipedia.org)