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  • biomass
  • This study of fungi that bioconvert energy crops is significant because 30 fungi were studied, because the fungi were isolated from decaying energy grasses, because enzyme activity and removal of plant cell wall components were recorded in addition to biomass conversion, and because the study period was 2 months. (biomedcentral.com)
  • acid
  • An improved method is described for preparing the enzyme which hydrolyzes the polysaccharide acid contained in vitreous humor, umbilical cord, synovial fluid, and the mucoid phase of group A hemolytic streptococci. (rupress.org)
  • The original glucose syrups were manufactured by acid hydrolysis of corn starch at high temperature and pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher DE syrups made by acid hydrolysis tend to have a bitter taste and a dark colour, due to the production of hydroxymethylfurfural and other byproducts.p. 26 This type of product is now manufactured using a continuous process and is still widely used due to the low cost of acid hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The starch needs to be swelled to allow the enzymes or acid to act upon it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose syrup can be produced by acid hydrolysis, enzyme hydrolysis, or a combination of the two. (wikipedia.org)
  • driven
  • The evolution was driven by iterative saturation mutagenesis in combination with enzyme activity screenings where product chirality was the decisive selection criterion. (diva-portal.org)
  • Glycoside
  • Glycoside hydrolase enzymes hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalytic
  • Carbonyl oxygen of the C-2 acetamido group of the substrate acts as the catalytic nucleophile/base in this family of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • As noted earlier, the Nudix fold is the catalytic part of the enzyme, but it should also be noted that both domains are involved in the active site and they both help with the attachment and coordination of H2O, Mg2+, and the ADP-ribose substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the substrate bound, Loop L9 moves 10 angstroms from its original position in the free enzyme, which forms a tighter turn and brings E162 to its catalytic position, meaning this enzyme cycles between an open (free enzyme) and a closed (substrate-metal complex) conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The debate of whether enterokinase was a cofactor or enzyme was resolved by Kunitz, who showed that the activation of trypsinogen by enterokinase was catalytic. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycogen
  • This is a key enzyme in glycogen metabolism and its gene localizes to a chromosomal region (15q15) that is associated with susceptibility to diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classification
  • This classification is available on the CAZy(http://www.cazy.org/GH1.html) web site, and also discussed at CAZypedia, an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate active enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • The purified enzyme has apparent K(m) values of ∼50 μm for both lysoplasmenylcholine and lysoplasmenylethanolamine and apparent V(m) values of 24.5 and 17.5 μmol/min/mg protein for the two substrates, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • This mobility is thought to be important in allowing access of substrates to the enzyme active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • starch
  • In addition to cost, enzyme diversity is an issue because the plant cell wall, with its many polysaccharides, is far more complex than starch. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the method used to hydrolyse the starch and on the extent to which the hydrolysis reaction has been allowed to proceed, different grades of glucose syrup are produced, which have different characteristics and uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maltose is also less humectant than glucose, so candy produced with high-maltose syrup will not become sticky as easily as candy produced with a standard glucose syrup.p. 81 Irrespective of the feedstock or the method used for hydrolysis, certain steps are common to the production of glucose syrup: Before conversion of starch to glucose can begin, the starch must be separated from the plant material. (wikipedia.org)
  • This prepares the starch for hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, glucose syrup is mainly produced by first adding the enzyme α-amylase to a mixture of corn starch and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • For biocatalytic purpose the enzyme were was successfully immobilized on alumina oxide membranes to function in a two-step biocatalytic reaction with immobilized alcoholdehydrogenase A from Rhodococcus ruber , producing 2-hydroxyacetophenone from racemic 2 . (diva-portal.org)
  • A uniform design coupled with subset selection was employed to determine pH, reaction time, and temperature parameters, as well as dextranase hydrolysis efficiency. (dicp.ac.cn)
  • Our results showed that pH plays an important role in the hydrolysis reaction within a relatively narrow range (pH 4-7). (dicp.ac.cn)
  • ADP-ribose diphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes a hydrolysis reaction in which water nucleophilically attacks ADP-ribose to produce AMP and D-ribose 5-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • the enzyme is isolated from the liquid in which the bacteria are grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glucose can then be transformed into fructose by passing the glucose through a column that is loaded with the enzyme D-xylose isomerase, an enzyme that is isolated from the growth medium of any of several bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyzes
  • Purification, identification, and cloning of lysoplasmalogenase, the enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the vinyl ether bond of lysoplasmalogen. (nih.gov)
  • relation
  • The relation between enzyme activity and the virulence and invasiveness of group A hemolytic streptococci is briefly considered. (rupress.org)
  • Plants
  • Here, we thoroughly analyze 30 of these fungi including those most often found on decaying leaves and stems of these plants, as well as four fungi chosen because they are well-studied for their plant cell wall deconstructing enzymes, for wood decay, or for genetic regulation of plant cell wall deconstruction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We, and others [ 4 , 10 ], have reasoned that fungi that naturally deconstruct the cell walls of sugarcane and Miscanthus might produce enzymes with the diversity and strength of activity best suited to bioconversion of these plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • activity
  • Fractions were tested for lysoplasmalogenase activity ( black filled circles ) using the coupled enzyme assay and were expressed in nmol/min/fraction. (nih.gov)
  • The inert function of digestive enzymes within the pancreas was known, as compared to their potent activity within the intestine, but the basis of this difference was unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1899, Pavlov's student, N. P. Schepowalnikov, demonstrated that canine duodenal secretions dramatically stimulated the digestive activity of pancreatic enzymes, especially trypsinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • market
  • Protein hydrolysate enzymes market is a emerging market which is facing challenges for commercialization and effective alternatives. (researchbeam.com)
  • inhibition
  • Since it is difficult to compare the in vitro inhibition data of enzyme inhibitors as far as they are monitored with different assays, we also present such data for some interesting cPLA2α inhibitors determined with the same assay. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A few other mechanisms in E. coli that variously regulate initiation are DDAH (datA-Dependent DnaA Hydrolysis, which is also regulated by IHF), inhibition of the dnaA gene (by the SeqA protein), and reactivation of DnaA by the lipid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • phospholipids
  • From these the a-subtype of cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2α) appears to be the most likely candidate to catalyze this hydrolysis, since the enzyme is highly selective for arachidonoyl-containing phospholipids and is tightly regulated by receptor-stimulated mechanisms (calcium influx and phosphorylation). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Stimulating the receptors causes the associated enzyme phospholipase C to hydrolyze phosphoinositide phospholipids in the cell's plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • Only fifteen amino acid residues are absolutely conserved across mutations of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the tripeptide glutathione is synthesized in two steps from free amino acids, by two enzymes: gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The processing of these large brown glossy seeds of the African oil bean (Figure 1 ) to obtain ugba is usually by natural fermentation, a process that involves microbiological and biochemical changes, caused by hydrolysis and desirable changes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The facility has been designed and engineered to process 40 tons of wheat straw per day into ethanol using enzymes made in an adjacent enzyme manufacturing facility. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • All enzymes belonging to α-amylase cluster are classified into the GH 13 family and their arrangement contains a (β/α) barrel with Glu as a proton donor and Asp as a nucleophile on its catalytic sites. (frontiersin.org)
  • release
  • Release of AMC fluorescence by DUB enzymes can be monitored using 380 nm excitation and 460 nm emission wavelengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • further
  • Moreover, experiments with cPLA2α knockout mice have provided further evidence for the central role of this enzyme in inflammation. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The acylenzyme can undergo one of two pathways depending on the conditions highlighted above: Further hydrolyzation of the acylenzyme with water produces the carboxylic acid and the regenerated enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • uses
  • Distributed by Statoil, the Bio95 2G mixture uses ethanol derived from wheat straw collected on Danish fields after harvest and produced by Inbicon (a div. of DONG Energy), using enzyme technology from Novozymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • class
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1-(sn-glycero-3-phospho)-1D-myo-inositol inositolphosphohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-linked-glycopeptide-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)-L-asparagine amidohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • water
  • and;an extract of the microorganism, such as the water soluble fraction of the lysed cell, said cell material, lysate or extract optionally being treated, e.g. by hydrolysis, drying and/or filtration. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • several
  • Several sampling and analytical methods including thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), among others, have been used to test for aflatoxin B1 contamination in foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the enzymes have not been characterized and there may be several more intermediates that are still unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • chain
  • The α-amylase and all include a huge proportion of tyrosine and tryptophan in the enzyme protein and denature at around 60°C. The α-amylase is an extracellular endo-glycoprotein having single polypeptide chain of 475 residues, two -SH groups and 4 disulfide bridges with a compactly bound Ca 2+ . (frontiersin.org)
  • complex
  • Key to this chromosome-wide activation is a regulatory complex containing long, non-coding RNA and three enzymes. (lmu.de)
  • The crystal structure of the MenH enzyme in E.coli (SHCHC synthase) exists as a complex of three protein molecules shown in the diagram. (wikipedia.org)