• plasma membrane
  • Clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) are found in virtually all cells and form domains of the plasma membrane termed clathrin-coated pits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, it suggests that the two apparently distinct clathrin assembly modes, namely coated pits and coated plaques, observed in experimental investigations might be a consequence of varied tensions in the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caveolae are the most common reported non-clathrin-coated plasma membrane buds, which exist on the surface of many, but not all cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can constitute up to a third of the plasma membrane area of the cells of some tissues, being especially abundant in smooth muscle, type I pneumocytes, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macropinocytosis, which usually occurs from highly ruffled regions of the plasma membrane, is the invagination of the cell membrane to form a pocket, which then pinches off into the cell to form a vesicle (0.5-5 µm in diameter) filled with a large volume of extracellular fluid and molecules within it (equivalent to ~100 CCVs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The endocytic pathway of mammalian cells consists of distinct membrane compartments, which internalize molecules from the plasma membrane and recycle them back to the surface (as in early endosomes and recycling endosomes), or sort them to degradation (as in late endosomes and lysosomes). (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes endomembranes are rare, although in many photosynthetic bacteria the plasma membrane is highly folded and most of the cell cytoplasm is filled with layers of light-gathering membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most lipids are synthesized in yeast either in the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid particles, or the mitochondrion, with little or no lipid synthesis occurring in the plasma membrane or nuclear membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • COPI vesicles transport proteins retrograde between golgi compartments, and from cis-golgi to ER clathrin vesicles transport proteins from plasma membrane and trans-golgi to endosomes (ex. (brainscape.com)
  • It is a component of the cell plasma membrane that modulates cell signal transduction events, and appears to concentrate in lipid rafts[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gangliosides are present and concentrated on cell surfaces, with the two hydrocarbon chains of the ceramide moiety embedded in the plasma membrane and the oligosaccharides located on the extracellular surface, where they present points of recognition for extracellular molecules or surfaces of neighboring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The properties of the VSG coat that enable immune evasion are: Shielding - the dense nature of the VSG coat (VSG proteins pack shoulder-to-shoulder) prevents the immune system of the mammalian host from accessing the plasma membrane or any other parasitic invariant surface epitopes (such as ion channels, transporters, receptors etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The VSGs from T. brucei are attached to the plasma membrane via a covalent attachment to two glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors (one per monomer), which directs its forward-trafficking from the ER to the flagellar pocket for incorporation into the membrane, as predicted by the GPI valence hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mannose receptor recycles continuously between the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments in a clathrin-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracellular portion of the receptor is composed of 8 consecutive C-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) closest to the plasma membrane, followed by a single fibronectin type II repeat domain and an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-type CRDs are each separated by linker regions of 10-20 amino acids containing a number of proline residues, whose cyclic side chain is fairly rigid and favours a conformation in which the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain is extended as far away from the plasma membrane as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a typical mammalian cell (diameter ~10 micrometers) were magnified to the size of a watermelon (~1 ft/30 cm), the lipid bilayer making up the plasma membrane would be about as thick as a piece of office paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The virus, with its hitchhiking antibodies still bound to it, then attaches to a cell and enters the lysosome- a membrane-bound structure within the cell that is filled with enzymes for digesting foreign and cellular components. (yu.edu)
  • Lectins perform recognition on the cellular and molecular level and play numerous roles in biological recognition phenomena involving cells, carbohydrates, and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000 ). Betaine is nonperturbing to cellular metabolism, highly compatible with enzyme function, and stabilizes cellular metabolic function under different kinds of stress in various organisms and animal tissues (Hanson et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In doing so, active enzymes are supplied, reducing the aggregation of waste of cellular products. (wordpress.com)
  • Antigen 'cleaning' and VSG recycling-VSG is efficiently recycled through the trypanosome flagellar pocket, allowing antibodies to be 'cleaned' from VSG before re-incorporation back into the cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membranes of almost all living organisms and many viruses are made of a lipid bilayer, as are the membranes surrounding the cell nucleus and other sub-cellular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The binding of glycoproteins on the surface of parasitic cells also is believed to be a function. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that some hepatitis C viral glycoproteins attach to C-type lectins on the host cell surface (liver cells) for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first proposal that the membranes within cells form a single system that exchanges material between its components was by Morré and Mollenhauer in 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial cells are eukaryotic cells i.e. they have a distinct nucleus and possess membrane-bound organelles. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Cells that lack LAMP2 express normal levels of VAMP8, but fail to accumulate STX17 on autophagosomes, which is the most likely explanation for the lack of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes (PubMed:27628032). (genecards.org)
  • Lysosomes are cell organelles found in most animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are rarely found on the plasma membranes of normal cells, and are found more on highly metastatic tumors than on poorly metastatic ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Break down materials ingested by phagocytic cells, release enzymes to the outside of the cell in order to detsroy surrounding material, to digest worn-out organelles and to to completely break down cells after they have died. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • There was just one problem: Reflecting Ebola's ingenuity, both targets reside only in lysosomes deep within cells-making them invisible to the immune system and shielded from attack by conventional antibodies. (yu.edu)
  • Lysosomes are sacs of enzymes within cells that are involved with waste recycling. (wordpress.com)
  • These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bilayers are particularly impermeable to ions, which allows cells to regulate salt concentrations and pH by transporting ions across their membranes using proteins called ion pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • In bacterial systems, sialic acids are biosynthesized by an aldolase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • One common example of such a modification in nature is the lipopolysaccharide coat on a bacterial outer membrane, which helps retain a water layer around the bacterium to prevent dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondria
  • Importantly, the endomembrane system does not include the membranes of chloroplasts or mitochondria, but might have evolved from the latter (see below: Evolution). (wikipedia.org)