• gangliosides
  • NeuNAc, an acetylated derivative of the carbohydrate sialic acid, makes the head groups of gangliosides anionic at pH 7, which distinguishes them from globosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oligosaccharide groups on gangliosides extend well beyond the surfaces of the cell membranes, and act as distinguishing surface markers that can serve as specific determinants in cellular recognition and cell-to-cell communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in genes coding for these enzymes leads to the accumulation of partially broken down gangliosides in lysosomes, which results in a group of diseases called gangliosidosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer membrane
  • The outer membrane controls the entry and exit of material. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • One common example of such a modification in nature is the lipopolysaccharide coat on a bacterial outer membrane, which helps retain a water layer around the bacterium to prevent dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • sialic acid
  • A bacterial enzyme with sialic acid mutarotase activity, NanM, that is able to rapidly equilibrate solutions of sialic acid to the resting equilibrium position of around 90% beta/10% alpha has been discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme uses a mannose derivative as a substrate, inserting three carbons from pyruvate into the resulting sialic acid structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes can be used for chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialic acid derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • This overexpression of sialic acid on surfaces creates a negative charge on cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • 2000 ). Betaine is nonperturbing to cellular metabolism, highly compatible with enzyme function, and stabilizes cellular metabolic function under different kinds of stress in various organisms and animal tissues (Hanson et al. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • bound
  • The virus, with its hitchhiking antibodies still bound to it, then attaches to a cell and enters the lysosome -- a membrane-bound structure within the cell that is filled with enzymes for digesting foreign and cellular components. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mitochondria
  • Importantly, the endomembrane system does not include the membranes of chloroplasts or mitochondria, but might have evolved from the latter (see below: Evolution). (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular membrane
  • Antigen 'cleaning' and VSG recycling-VSG is efficiently recycled through the trypanosome flagellar pocket, allowing antibodies to be 'cleaned' from VSG before re-incorporation back into the cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoconjugates
  • 2001) Eastern blotting was described as a technique for detecting glycoconjugates generated by blotting BSA onto PVDF membranes, followed by periodate treatment. (wikipedia.org)