• genes
  • To further test this CRISPRi system, guide RNAs were designed to individually or simultaneously target four lactate-producing enzyme genes. (springer.com)
  • Results showed that all lactate-producing enzyme genes were significantly repressed. (springer.com)
  • Notably, d -lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) was shown to be the most influential enzyme for lactic acid formation in micro-aerobic conditions, as inhibiting ldhA alone led to lactic acid level similar to simultaneously repressing four genes. (springer.com)
  • My own problem concerned the manner in which genes control the production of enzymes, as postulated in Beadle's one gene-one enzyme hypothesis. (genetics.org)
  • DNA damage leads to cellular responses that include the increased expression of DNA repair genes, repression of DNA replication and alterations in cellular metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • REST is expressly involved in the repression of neural genes in non-neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ischaemia, which results from reduced blood profusion of tisssues, decreasing nutrient and oxygen supply, induces REST transcription and nuclear accumulation, leading to the epigenetic repression of neuronal genes leading to cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism beyond REST induction in ischaemia, might be tightly linked to its oxygen-dependent nuclear translocation and repression of target genes in hypoxia (low oxygen) where REST fulfils the functions of a master regulator of gene repression in hypoxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the expression of genes that encode for enzymes is typically regulated by the availability of a given substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • 4. The transformed substrate molecules, now called the product of the reaction, are released from the enzyme molecule. (studystack.com)
  • It seemed likely that the enzyme molecule itself was affected by the mutation, but there was the possibility that the observed difference was due to an extrinsic factor produced in the mutant. (genetics.org)
  • It has been suggested that the AMP part of the molecule can be considered to be a kind of "handle" by which the enzyme can "grasp" the coenzyme to switch it between different catalytic centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, cofactors were defined as an additional substance apart from protein and substrate that is required for enzyme activity and a prosthetic group as a substance that undergoes its whole catalytic cycle attached to a single enzyme molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium is, therefore, a cell signaling molecule, and not usually considered a cofactor of the enzymes it regulates. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • As a result, the whole operation is prevented from being transcribed into mRNA, and the expression of all enzymes necessary for the synthesis of the end product enzyme is abolished. (chemistry-dictionary.com)
  • These three enzymes, collectively called the capping enzymes, are only able to catalyze their respective reactions when attached to RNA polymerase II, an enzyme necessary for the transcription of DNA into pre-mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this complex of RNA polymerase II and the capping enzymes is achieved, the capping enzymes are able to add the cap to the mRNA while it is produced by RNA polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human mRNA guanylyltransferase domain of the capping enzyme is composed of seven helices and fifteen β strands that are grouped into three, five and seven strands, arranged as antiparallel β sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processing bodies (P-bodies) are distinct foci within the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell consisting of many enzymes involved in mRNA turnover. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests a novel site termed EGP bodies, or stress granules, may be responsible for mRNA storage as these sites lack the decapping enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • microRNA mediated repression occurs in two ways, either by translational repression or stimulating mRNA decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • 5. Auxotrophic mutants In a microbial process employing an auxotrophic mutant (nutritionally requiring mutant), excess supply of the required nutrient results in abundant cell growth with little accumulation of the desired metabolite due to feedback inhibition and /or end-product repression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been suggested that AGAT activity in tissues is regulated in a number of ways including induction by growth hormone and thyroxine, inhibition of the enzyme by ornithine, and repression of its synthesis by creatine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is usually achieved through inhibition of synthesis of enzymes involved in catabolism of carbon sources other than the preferred one. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • 5. The unaltered enzyme reacts with other substrate molecules. (studystack.com)
  • I carried out the experiments Szilard suggested, and the results showed clearly that the difference in thermal stability was due to a difference in the enzyme molecules themselves. (genetics.org)
  • A capping enzyme (CE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the attachment of the 5' cap to messenger RNA molecules that are in the process of being synthesized in the cell nucleus during the first stages of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some consider tightly bound organic molecules as prosthetic groups and not as coenzymes, while others define all non-protein organic molecules needed for enzyme activity as coenzymes, and classify those that are tightly bound as coenzyme prosthetic groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • covalent
  • How can an enzyme be regulated by covalent modification? (cram.com)
  • The capping enzyme is part of the covalent nucleotidyl transferases superfamily, which also includes DNA ligases and RNA ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzymes of this superfamily share the following similarities: Conserved regions known as motifs I, II, III, IIIa, IV, V and VI, which are arranged in the same order and similar spacing A lysine containing motif KxDG (motif I) A covalent lysyl-NMP intermediate The capping enzyme is composed of two domains, a nucleotidyl transferase (NTase) domain and a C-terminal oligonucleotide binding (OB) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NTase domain, conserved in capping enzymes, DNA and RNA ligases, is made up 5 motifs, I, III, IIIa, IV and V. Motif I or KxDG is the active site where the covalent (lysyl)-N-GMP intermediate is formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • These enzymes degrade complex organic matter such as cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars that enzyme-producing organisms use as a source of carbon, energy, and nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other organisms require additional metals as enzyme cofactors, such as vanadium in the nitrogenase of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, tungsten in the aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase of the thermophilic archaean Pyrococcus furiosus, and even cadmium in the carbonic anhydrase from the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • DNA glycosylases can be grouped into the following categories based on their substrate(s): In molecular biology, the protein family, Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) is an enzyme that reverts mutations in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term coenzyme refers specifically to enzymes and, as such, to the functional properties of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligases
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ligases (amide synthases). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Most important in this respect is the feedback repression of AGAT by creatine, the end-product of the pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very often, a high concentration of the final product of a pathway inhibits the activity of enzymes that function early in the pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • 10 , 11 ] emphasize the constraints of enzyme expression levels on metabolic fluxes, and [ 12 , 13 ] focus on the effect of metabolites on gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mutation
  • To study this question, I used a temperature-sensitive mutant requiring pantothenic acid for growth in which the enzyme affected by the mutation could be measured in extracts. (genetics.org)
  • Producer
  • Benefits of exoenzyme production can also be lost after secretion because the enzymes are liable to denature, degrade or diffuse away from the producer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant
  • I posed this question to Szilard, and he immediately suggested that I could get an answer by studying heat inactivation in mixtures of mutant and wild-type enzymes. (genetics.org)
  • carbon
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring one-carbon group methyltransferases. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • The inferred models allow us to 1) identify the feedback links between metabolites and regulators and their functions, 2) identify the active paths responsible for relaying perturbation effects, 3) computationally test the general hypotheses pertaining to the feedback control of enzyme expressions, 4) evaluate the advantage of an integrated model over separate systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structure
  • Do they determine the structure of enzymes or merely the rate at which the enzymes are produced? (genetics.org)
  • The enzyme structure has three sub-domains referred to hinge, base and lid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This structure revealed that the enzyme flips the damaged base out of the double helix into an active site pocket in order to excise it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iodine is also an essential trace element, but this element is used as part of the structure of thyroid hormones rather than as an enzyme cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Knockout experiments have shown that this enzyme is responsible for the bulk of methylation in mouse cells, and it is essential for embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • As of late 2007, two structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 11AS and 12AS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, osmotic shock resulting from water potential changes can impact enzyme activities as microbes redirect energy from enzyme production to synthesizing osmolytes to maintain cellular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • The human capping enzyme is an example of a bifunctional polypeptide, which has both triphosphatase (N-terminal) and guanylyltransferase (C-teriminal) domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, some alkenes are toxicated by human enzymes to produce an electrophilic epoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Introduction of moisture exposes soil organic matter to enzyme catalysis and also increases loss of soluble monomers via diffusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Current evidence suggests that, in human cells, TDG and SMUG1 are the major enzymes responsible for the repair of the U:G mispairs caused by spontaneous cytosine deamination, whereas uracil arising in DNA through dU misincorporation is mainly dealt with by UNG. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Enzyme production and secretion is an energy intensive process and, because it consumes resources otherwise available for reproduction, there is evolutionary pressure to conserve those resources by limiting production. (wikipedia.org)