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  • substrates
  • Drug metabolism also affects multidrug resistance in infectious diseases and in chemotherapy for cancer, and the actions of some drugs as substrates or inhibitors of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are a common reason for hazardous drug interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In phase I, a variety of enzymes act to introduce reactive and polar groups into their substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzyme complexes act to incorporate an atom of oxygen into nonactivated hydrocarbons, which can result in either the introduction of hydroxyl groups or N-, O- and S-dealkylation of substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • All bulbs were then grown for 4 weeks at standard temperature on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and kinetin or thidiazuron (at concentrations of 1 mg L-1 each) in order to examine the influence of the above-mentioned pretreatments and nutrient medium composition on enzyme activity. (ac.rs)
  • Often toluene exposure occurs in conjunction with benzene and since they are to some degree metabolised by the same enzymes, the relative concentrations will determine their rate of elimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • We show that lifespan is also extended in C. elegans by reducing levels of athp-2, a putative ortholog of Itc1/ACF1, a critical subunit of the enzyme complex. (nih.gov)
  • Alkaline phosphatase is a zinc-containing dimeric enzyme with the MW: 86,000 Da, each subunit containing 429 amino acids with four cysteine residues linking the two subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • antioxidant
  • We investigated the activity of 3 antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase during morphogenesis of Fritillaria meleagris L. in vitro in bulb scale culture. (ac.rs)
  • vitro
  • The consequences of the induction was explained using a mechanistic approach, acknowledging food-induced changes in the blood flow to the liver, and interpreting in vitro generated metabolic information. (diva-portal.org)
  • protein
  • The results demonstrate that enzyme induction is tightly coupled to protein kinase activation and is consistent with the possibility that these two processes are causally related. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) (EC 3.1.3.1) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) such as CREB-binding protein also dissociate the DNA from the histone complex, allowing transcription to proceed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its hormone binds to a receptor, and Ca2+ activates the protein calmodulin, and the complex binds to DNA, producing an enzyme to stimulate growth in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • In this study, we have shown that NGF mediates the specific induction of the key enzymes in catecholamine biosynthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT). (jneurosci.org)
  • synthesis
  • The induced synthesis of an enzyme in response to change in environmental conditions. (oup.com)
  • Gibberellins in the seed embryo are believed to signal starch hydrolysis through inducing the synthesis of the enzyme α-amylase in the aleurone cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of this process have indicated gibberellins cause higher levels of transcription of the gene coding for the α-amylase enzyme, to stimulate the synthesis of α-amylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • The potential for induction of CYP activity was evaluated by exposing primary cultures of human hepatocytes to modafinil (10-300 μM). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Primary cultures of human hepatocytes have the distinct advantage of exhibiting species-specific induction of P450 isoforms, but are dependent on the availability of fresh cells and donor-to-donor variability. (aspetjournals.org)
  • inducers
  • These preliminary data using a few prototypical inducers show that Fa2N-4 cells can be a reliable surrogate for primary human hepatocytes, and, when used in conjunction with the Invader technology, could provide a reliable assay for assessment of induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. (aspetjournals.org)
  • genes
  • Diauxie occurs because organisms use operons or multiple sets of genes to control differently the expression of enzymes needed to metabolize the different nutrients or sugars they encounter. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The molecular mechanism of the induction response remains incompletely understood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the case of the bacterial diauxic shift from glucose to lactose metabolism, a proposed mechanism suggested that glucose initially inhibits the ability of the enzyme adenylate cyclase to synthesize cyclic AMP (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • For example, when grown in the presence of both glucose and maltose, Lactococcus lactis will produce enzymes to metabolize glucose first, altering its gene expression to use maltose only after the supply of glucose has been exhausted. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • We have compared NGF-mediated TH and AChE induction and have provided pharmacological evidence that TH induction involves a post-transcriptional, polyadenylation-dependent event (blockable by 9-beta-arabinofuranosyladenine but not by alpha- amanitin), whereas AChE induction requires transcription (blockable by alpha-amanitin). (jneurosci.org)
  • bound
  • 2) The activities of extracellular and cell wall bound hydrolytic enzymes were influenced by light irradiation and aeration conditions with wood meal culture medium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In effect, along with the concomitant compound the phosphate was bound to, this enzyme yields pure inorganic phosphate which can be ultimately targeted by the phosphate-specific transport system (Pst system) for translocation into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • effect
  • The effect of enzyme induction on the metabolism of bis(2- methoxyethyl)ether (111966) (diglyme) was studied in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • As compared to NGF, cAMP produces a different pattern of enzyme induction (in addition to TH, DBH, PNMT, and AChE, dopa decarboxylase (DDC) is also induced), it acts rapidly (a 12-hr exposure produces the full effect), and it acts only at the transcriptional level (its effects are blocked by alpha-amanitin). (jneurosci.org)
  • Enzyme induction is partly responsible for the phenomenon of tolerance, in which repeated use of a drug leads to a reduction of the drug's effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Enzyme activity measurements can be conducted in tissues with low enzyme content using the analytical method presented here. (diva-portal.org)
  • Enzyme activity was measured 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the start of morphogenesis induction. (ac.rs)
  • Melvin Cohn in Monod's lab at the Pasteur Institute then found that β-galactosides induced enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • In particular, isw2Δ cells show an increased response to genotoxic stresses, and the DNA repair enzyme Rad51 is important for isw2Δ-mediated longevity. (nih.gov)
  • At the time of the "diauxic shift", there is often a lag period during which cells produce the enzymes needed to metabolize the second sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase
  • The time course of TH induction is such that NGF must be continuously present for at least the first 36 hr (during which time TH levels remain unchanged), and then the entire increase takes place during the subsequent 12 hr. (jneurosci.org)
  • found
  • The enzyme is found across a multitude of organisms, prokaryotes and eukaryotes alike, with the same general function but in different structural forms suitable to the environment they function in. (wikipedia.org)