• cysteine
  • Cells make glutathione in two adenosine triphosphate-dependent steps: First, gamma-glutamylcysteine is synthesized from L-glutamate and cysteine via the enzyme gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (glutamate cysteine ligase, GCL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) is a heterodimeric enzyme composed of a catalytic and a modulatory subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) is a redox-sensitive homodimeric enzyme, conserved in the plant kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease (EC 3.4.22.2) enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • Mechanism-Based Studies of the Active Site-Directed Inhibition and Activation of Enzyme Transketolase', Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE) , 7(1), pp. 13-20. (ac.ir)
  • The inhibition of transketolase, a thiamine requiring enzyme such as PDF, by meta nitrophenyl derivative of 2-oxo-3-butenoic acid (MNPB) is reported here. (ac.ir)
  • A two-step inhibition was observed, first the inhibitor reacts with the enzyme on one site- non-cooperative with Mg 2+ , and TPP, inhibiting the enzyme, second in higher concentration of the inhibitor an abrupt enhancement of the inhibition takes place. (ac.ir)
  • Among the most notable features of propeptides is their ability to inhibit the activity of their cognate enzymes and that certain propeptides exhibit high selectivity for inhibition of the peptidases from which they originate. (wikipedia.org)
  • pyruvate
  • The PPM family, which includes PP2C and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, are enzymes with Mn2+/Mg2+ metal ions that are resistant to classic inhibitors and toxins of the PPP family. (wikipedia.org)
  • activate
  • The protons activate the infernal enzymes, which produce tiny flashes of light that, when combined with the flashes of countless other dinoflagellates in a situation like a plankton bloom, result in sizable displays. (ibtimes.com)
  • It is interesting in light of the fact that many people are taking enzymes regularly as supplements to realize that, in order to initiate the action by an enzyme, that is, to activate it, some metal ion (an electrically charged particle) or some simpler organic molecule or co-enzyme(s) must also be present. (rawfoodexplained.com)
  • Binuclear non-heme iron enzymes activate O 2 for diverse chemistries that include oxygenation of organic substrates and hydrogen atom abstraction. (osti.gov)
  • To date, β-galactosidase-activated contrast agents have attracted the most attention in the literature, although there no theoretical reason that other enzymes could not be used to activate contrast agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • again, a very good example of synergism within the system and, also, a very good reason taking isolated enzyme factors may be disruptive of normal enzymatic activity causing fluctuations of precise temperature ranges necessary to conclude successfully an important metabolic process. (rawfoodexplained.com)
  • Papain is a relatively heat-resistant enzyme, with an optimal temperature range of 60 and 70 °C. Papain prefers to cleave at: (hydrophobic)-(Arg or Lys)- cleaves here -(not Val). (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4D gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • D-dopachrome decarboxylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DDT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, tyrosine hydroxylase is encoded by the TH gene, and the enzyme is present in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral sympathetic neurons and the adrenal medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pantothenic acid in the form of CoA is also required for acylation and acetylation, which, for example, are involved in signal transduction and enzyme activation and deactivation, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • The enzymes in the Calvin cycle are functionally equivalent to most enzymes used in other metabolic pathways such as gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway, but they are found in the chloroplast stroma instead of the cell cytosol, separating the reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The reduction of activation energy (ΔG) increases the number of reactant molecules with enough energy to reach the activation energy and form the product. (biology-online.org)
  • In general, enzyme-activated agents contain a paramagnetic metal ion which can affect the T1 or T2 relaxation times for nearby water molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • Solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for classical complement activation pathway. (bmj.com)
  • Since this isolation, 3 human isoforms have been found (A,B,C). This enzyme (all isoforms) plays a vital role in the calcium signalling pathway by terminating the propagation of the signal caused by IP3 by converting it to IP4. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • In addition, PP2C does not seem to be evolutionarily related to the major family of Ser/Thr PPs and has no sequence homology to ancient PPP enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Enzymes bind to their substrates to perform all kinds of important and essential cellular processes, as well as processes that help you enjoy a slice of pizza! (study.com)
  • bonds
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the carboxy-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • There is no evidence that the stereochemical orientation of the methyl-bearing carbon affects the either the enzyme-catalyzed cleavage or the ability of the sugar to exclude water from the gadolinium ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • In humans there are thought to be four different versions of this regulatory domain, and thus four versions of the enzyme, depending on alternative splicing, though none of their structures have yet been properly determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Using a red pushpin, Thomas Hurley of the Indiana University School of Medicine demonstrates how a the compound Alda-1 works to restore functionality to a mutated form of the enzyme ALDH2, which plays an important role in metabolizing alcohol and other toxins in the body. (phys.org)
  • However some people, including about 40 percent of people of East Asian descent, carry a mutated form of the ALDH2 enzyme that does not carry out its intended functions well. (phys.org)
  • People with the mutated form of the enzyme are at increased risk of cardiovascular damage. (phys.org)
  • Spätzle-processing enzyme (SPE) is the only enzyme identified to date that functions in converting Spätzle to an active form during the immune response. (go.jp)
  • Enzyme-activated MR contrast agents are compounds that cause a detectable change in image intensity when in the presence of the active form of a certain enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme can then further catalyze L-tyrosine to form L-DOPA. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • The iron is held in place by two histidine residues and one glutamate residue, making it a non-heme, non-iron-sulfur iron-containing enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • In the present study, Toll activation induced by immune challenge was almost suppressed in spätzle mutant larvae and adults, whereas it was present in SPE mutant larvae challenged with Micrococcus luteus and adults challenged with Bacillus subtilis . (go.jp)
  • role
  • The enzyme, called ALDH2, plays an important role in metabolizing alcohol and other toxins, including those created by a lack of oxygen in the wake of a heart attack . (phys.org)
  • Since this statement is quite a mouthful, let us probe a little further to get a greater understanding of the specific role played by enzymes. (rawfoodexplained.com)
  • process
  • Their current paper describes how Alda-1 activates the ALDH2 enzyme in a process that Dr. Hurley likens to a woodworking procedure in which Alda-1 attaches to the ALDH2 enzyme at a crucial spot and acts like a shim or wedge to prop it up. (phys.org)
  • These names are applied according to the type of process the enzymes control. (rawfoodexplained.com)
  • The activation process of these enzymes includes the removal of propeptide regions, which serve a variety of functions in vivo and in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • Alda-1 reactivates the enzyme by propping up those parts of the structure so they regain normal function," said Dr. Hurley, director of the Center for Structural Biology on the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis campus. (phys.org)
  • Determination of its molecular structure showed it to be a unique two-chain enzyme with a light chain and a heavy chain bound non-covalently with each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • In fact, Nature has produced a whole family of such miracle workers and they are known as enzymes. (rawfoodexplained.com)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups (phosphotransferases) with an alcohol group as acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • A fully mature, active enzyme is produced following lipopolysaccharide expression in mature dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers injected the agent into both cells of a two-cell stage embryo, and then injected only one of the cells with mRNA for the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following a period of growth, they obtained MR images of the embryo that clearly displayed signal enhancement only in the cells derived from the parent cell that had been injected with both the enzyme and the contrast agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The question has arisen that if these two enzymes enhance two different aspects of fitness, why is it difficult to increase both simultaneously? (mrsupplement.com.au)