• oxidation
  • Hydrolysis of the oxidation product yields an isomeric analog of PQQ. (oxy.edu)
  • They catalyse the oxidation of primary amines to aldehydes, with the subsequent release of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide, which requires one copper ion per subunit and topaquinone as cofactor: RCH2NH2 + H2O + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } RCHO + NH3 + H2O2 The 3 substrates of this enzyme are primary amines (RCH2NH2), H2O, and O2, whereas its 3 products are RCHO, NH3, and H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methane oxidation requires the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Modification of these two cysteine residues via oxidation (in vivo/vitro) or titration (in vitro) has been found to inhibit enzyme activity, indicating that the CXXC motif is crucial to optimal protein folding and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrodes
  • Electrochemical sensors include a reagent mixture containing at least an electron transfer agent (also referred to as an 'electron mediator') and an analyte specific bio-catalytic protein (e.g. a particular enzyme), and one or more electrodes. (google.com)
  • vitamin
  • The scientific journal Nature published the 2003 paper by Kasahara and Kato that essentially stated that PQQ was a new vitamin and in 2005, an article by Anthony and Fenton that stated that the 2003 Kasahara and Kato paper drew incorrect and unsubstantiated conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyrrolloquinoline (PQQ) is an enzyme cofactor functionally related to the B vitamin family. (prohealth.com)
  • PqqA
  • A glutamic acid and a tyrosine in PqqA are cross-linked by the radical SAM enzyme PqqE in the first step of PqqA modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The need for two modifications to MftA by MftC might explain the high degree of amino acid conservation in the last eight residues of MftA, as compared to the level of conservation seen for PqqA, precursor of PQQ. (wikipedia.org)
  • amine
  • PQQ was initially discovered in Pseudomonas, making the bacterium survive on one carbon food sources and consequently was suspected to be present in human enzyme systems such as amine oxidases. (readabstracts.com)
  • stimulates
  • ProMito PQQ™ is a unique blend that combines PQQ (a nutrient that stimulates mitochondrial growth and ATP production) and Alpha GPC (which delivers the essential nutrient choline to the brain) to power-up improved mental processing. (prohealth.com)
  • nicotinamide
  • Mycofactocin is thought to play a role in redox pathways involving nicotinoproteins, enzymes with non-exchangeable bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyses
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction a primary alcohol + 2 ferricytochrome c ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } an aldehyde + 2 ferrocytochrome c + 2 H+ A periplasmic PQQ-containing quinoprotein is present in Pseudomonas and Rhodopseudomonas. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognitive function
  • In one double blind placebo controlled study in middle aged and elderly adults, supplementation with PQQ was found to support healthy cognitive function, including high end mental processing. (prohealth.com)
  • PQQ Plus has been specially formulated with these two novel ingredients to support overall neurological health, normal memory retention and cognitive function. (totaldiscountvitamins.com)
  • aldehyde
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donor with other acceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyzes
  • The BCAT enzyme catalyzes the conversion of BCAAs and α-ketoglutarate into branched chain α-keto acids and glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • In addition to the Schiff base linkage, PLP is anchored to the active site of the enzyme via hydrogen bonding at the Tyr 207 and Glu237 residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In humans, PQQ has been scientifically studied for its neuroprotective properties. (prohealth.com)
  • Dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dopamine beta-hydroxylase, Dopamine beta-monooxygenase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DBH gene. (medchemexpress.cn)
  • pathways
  • Recent evidence indicates PQQ can support several signal transduction pathways that are important in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and oxidative function, as well as supporting healthy levels of nerve growth factor and receptor activity. (prohealth.com)
  • M. infernorum possesses a streamlined genome but seems to have acquired numerous genes including those for enzymes of methylotrophic pathways via horizontal gene transfer, in particular, from Proteobacteria . (beds.ac.uk)
  • proteins
  • ESR/EPR can provide unique information on the identity and structure of stable and transient paramagnetic species such as defects, metals, clusters and organic cofactors, and nitroxide spin-labels engineered into proteins by, for example, ENDOR (electron-nuclear double resonance) and HYSCORE (hyperfine correlation spectroscopy). (london-nano.com)
  • The abundance, purity, and low price of methanol compared to commonly used sugars make methylotrophs competent organisms for production of amino acids, vitamins, recombinant proteins, single-cell proteins, co-enzymes and cytochromes. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohol
  • The hypothesis posits that those individuals with the His variant enzyme were sensitive enough to the effects of alcohol that differential reproductive success arose and the corresponding alleles were passed through the generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • derivatives
  • Here, three isomeric analogs of PQQ are systematically selected and synthesized from methoxynitroaniline derivatives. (oxy.edu)
  • analog
  • Michael addition of an aminoindole derivative with dimethyl trans-2-ketoglutaconate was performed to form the pyridine ring, which was further oxidized into the triester of a PQQ analog. (oxy.edu)
  • amino
  • ADH was also one of the first oligomeric enzymes that had its amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (BCAT), also known as branched-chain amino acid transaminase, is an aminotransferase enzyme (EC 2.6.1.42) which acts upon branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • Detailed analysis of the stability of each reconstituted enzyme as well as steady-state kinetics studies will shed light on the structural characteristics mandatory for enzymatic activity, substrate specificity, and active site characterization. (oxy.edu)
  • nitrogen
  • These isomers differ in the positioning of the nitrogen atom on the ring system and will serve to define the structural significance of PQQ in terms of binding with a metal cation and reconstitution process with the apoprotein. (oxy.edu)
  • intermediate
  • Radical SAM is a designation for a superfamily of enzymes that use a [4Fe-4S]+ cluster to reductively cleave S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to generate a radical, usually a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical, as a critical intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes utilize this potent radical intermediate to perform an array of unusual and chemically difficult transformations, often to functionalize unactivated C-H bonds. (wikipedia.org)