• inhibitors
  • Abstract -Unexplained, persistent cough limits the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in a significant number of patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of hypertension and are presently the uncontested drugs of choice for the treatment of congestive heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition with selective or nonselective COX inhibitors was essentially the same for the two enzymes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A significant correlation between the in vivo and in vitro potency of prostaglandin synthetase (PES) inhibitors to antagonize PES activity and their ability to antagonize the acute narcotic and rate-depressant effects of ethanol support this hypothesis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The relative importance of PES metabolites vs. lipoxygenase metabolites was determined via administration of specific enzyme inhibitors (phospholipase, lipoxygenase and dual PES/lipoxygenase inhibitors) and receptor agonists/antagonists (prostaglandin and leukotriene). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Synthetic ether lipid analogs have cytostatic and cytotoxic properties, probably by disrupting membrane structure and acting as inhibitors of enzymes within signal transmission pathways, such as protein kinase C and phospholipase C. A toxic ether lipid analogue miltefosine has recently been introduced as an oral treatment for the tropical disease leishmaniasis, which is caused by leishmania, a protozoal parasite with a particularly high ether lipid content in its membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. (britannica.com)
  • But NSAIDs also inhibit cyclo-oxygenase enzymes that protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. (scripps.edu)
  • Prostaglandins are powerful locally acting vasodilators and inhibit the aggregation of blood platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • As evidenced by its initial discovery as a receptor for PGD2 in T-helper type 2 cells, activated DP2 triggers Gi alpha subunit-linked heterotrimeric G proteins to dissociate into their component a) Gi alpha subunits (also termed Giα subunits) which simulate phospholipase C to cleave phosphatidylinositol triphosphate into inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) and b) G beta-gamma complex of subunits (Gβγ) which inhibit adenyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminal prostaglandin
  • To gain a better insight into the specific roles of COX isoforms and characterize the interactions between upstream and downstream enzymes in brain AA cascade, we examined the expression and activity of COX-2 and phospholipase A 2 enzymes (cPLA 2 and sPLA 2 ), as well as the expression of terminal prostaglandin E synthases (cPGES, mPGES-1, and − 2) in wild type and COX-1 -/- mice. (wiley.com)
  • molecules
  • Plants synthesize molecules similar in structure to prostaglandins, including jasmonic acid (jasmonate), which regulates processes such as plant reproduction, fruit ripening, and flowering. (britannica.com)
  • Beta oxidation, in the mitochondrial matrix, then cuts the long carbon chains of the fatty acids (in the form of acyl-CoA molecules) into a series of two-carbon (acetate) units, which, combined with co-enzyme A, form molecules of acetyl CoA, which condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Suppression of allergic inflammation by the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3," Nature Immunology , vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 524-531, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2 or CRTH2) is a human protein encoded by the PTGDR2 gene and GPR44. (wikipedia.org)
  • During that time, Bazan and his colleagues found prostaglandin D synthetase in the interphotoreceptor matrix and cloned its receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • A recent report describing an association between a polymorphism of the gene encoding MCC and atopic eczema in a Japanese population, 7 along with the fact that skin rashes are another adverse effect of ACEIs, therefore raises the possibility that such molecular variants of this enzyme may also play a role in ACEI-related cough. (ahajournals.org)
  • The absence of functionally important polymorphisms in the COX-2 gene may suggest that there has been selective pressure against those single nucleotide polymorphisms because of the critical role of this enzyme in maintenance of homeostasis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Group XVI phospholipase A2 also commonly known as adipocyte phospholipase A2 (AdPLA) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G16 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two isozymes of COX encoded by distinct gene products: a constitutive COX-1 (this enzyme) and an inducible COX-2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • 85 kDa calcium-independent phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLA2
  • The article offers information on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) in the U.S. Cardiovascular disease was the contributing cause of death in 58% of all American deaths in 2003. (ebscohost.com)
  • Antioxidant and inflammatory aspects of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ): a review. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article cites a research study that examines the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), and its antioxidant and inflammatory aspects. (ebscohost.com)
  • Many independent evaluation studies have been published verifying the role of inflammation in atherogenesis and supporting the opinion that lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a. (ebscohost.com)
  • Therapeutic Modulation of Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2). (ebscohost.com)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a calcium-independent phospholipase A2 that circulates in plasma in association with lipoprotein particles, whereas in atherosclerotic plaques it is co-localized with macrophages. (ebscohost.com)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an emerging risk factor and therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. (ebscohost.com)
  • PLA2 enzymes are commonly found in mammalian tissues as well as arachnid, insect and snake venom. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to a superfamily of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes and is found primarily in adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • It bears similarity to its PLA2 family in phospholipase activity and calcium dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other PLA2 enzymes, AdPLA is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue at higher levels than in the rest of the body, more so in white adipose tissue (WAT) than brown adipose tissue (BAT). (wikipedia.org)
  • His-23 and Cys-113 residues have been shown to be essential in AdPLA activity, which differs from the known His/Asp catalytic dyad or Ser/His/Asp catalytic triad of other PLA2 enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas asparagine binds to calcium in other PLA2 enzymes, the residue that participates in the creation of oxyanion hole in AdPLA has not yet been verified. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Regulation and function of epithelial secreted phospholipase A2 group X in asthma," The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine , vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 42-50, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • phospholipid
  • Furthermore, a model is suggested in which neurotransmitters regulate the activity of these enzymes and thus the balanced and localized release of AA and DHA from phospholipid in brain, depending on the primary source of the Ca 2+ signal. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • pathway
  • There was a compensatory up-regulation of COX-2, accompanied by the activation of the NF-κB pathway, and also an increase in the upstream cPLA 2 and sPLA 2 enzymes. (wiley.com)
  • More recently, a possible link between ACEI treatment-associated adverse effects and chymase has also been suggested: as chymase represents an alternative pathway for the activation of angiotensin II, it is possible that ACE inhibition may lead to an increased biological significance of this enzyme. (ahajournals.org)
  • inflammation
  • The study shows this type of inflammation is controlled by different enzymes in different parts of the body. (scripps.edu)
  • The new findings also are important from a basic science perspective because they advance the understanding of prostaglandin-mediated inflammation. (scripps.edu)
  • Importance of group X-secreted phospholipase A 2 in allergen-induced airway inflammation and remodeling in a mouse asthma model," The Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 865-877, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Through their role in vasodilation, prostaglandins are also involved in inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, while COX-1 and COX-2 are both located in the blood vessels, stomach and the kidneys, prostaglandin levels are increased by COX-2 in scenarios of inflammation and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes inflammation, and in turn pain due to the accumulation of histamines, prostaglandins, and potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymatic
  • They can serve to increase enzymatic activities of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme has also been identified as PLA2G16, HRASLS3, HREV107, HREV107-3, MGC118754 or H-REV107-1 from studies on class II tumor suppression but not on its enzymatic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • inositol
  • Also, he and his colleagues identified inositol lipid degradation and phospholipase A2 activation in neural cell damage in experimental epilepsy and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • histamine
  • however, it has been speculated that the kininogen-kinin (bradykinin) system may be involved: inhibition of ACE may result in a local accumulation of bradykinin, which in turn may lead to the activation of proinflammatory peptides (eg, substance P, phospholipase C and/or A 2 , prostaglandins, neuropeptide Y) and to local release of histamine in the airways. (ahajournals.org)
  • Regulation
  • Studies on AdPLA deficient mice have shown that the enzyme increased lipolysis in WAT as a result of decreased lipolysis regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtype
  • SummaryHaCaT as well as human primary keratinocytes constitutively expressed mRNA of the human secreted phospholipase A2 subtype groups X, V, IIA, and IID. (ebscohost.com)
  • vasodilation
  • An important example of the vasodilatory action of prostaglandins is found in the kidneys , in which widespread vasodilation leads to an increase in the flow of blood to the kidneys and an increase in the excretion of sodium in the urine. (britannica.com)
  • regulate
  • It specifically acts to up-regulate the enzyme cholesterol side chain cleaving enzyme, which leads to the greater conversion of cholesterol into androgen precursors required to make many steroid hormones, including testosterone and estrogens. (wikipedia.org)