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  • inhibit
  • The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is determined by the type of receptor to which the prostaglandin binds. (britannica.com)
  • But NSAIDs also inhibit cyclo-oxygenase enzymes that protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. (scripps.edu)
  • Prostaglandins are powerful locally acting vasodilators and inhibit the aggregation of blood platelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • As evidenced by its initial discovery as a receptor for PGD2 in T-helper type 2 cells, activated DP2 triggers Gi alpha subunit-linked heterotrimeric G proteins to dissociate into their component a) Gi alpha subunits (also termed Giα subunits) which simulate phospholipase C to cleave phosphatidylinositol triphosphate into inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) and b) G beta-gamma complex of subunits (Gβγ) which inhibit adenyl cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminal prostaglandin
  • To gain a better insight into the specific roles of COX isoforms and characterize the interactions between upstream and downstream enzymes in brain AA cascade, we examined the expression and activity of COX-2 and phospholipase A 2 enzymes (cPLA 2 and sPLA 2 ), as well as the expression of terminal prostaglandin E synthases (cPGES, mPGES-1, and − 2) in wild type and COX-1 -/- mice. (wiley.com)
  • phospholipid
  • Furthermore, a model is suggested in which neurotransmitters regulate the activity of these enzymes and thus the balanced and localized release of AA and DHA from phospholipid in brain, depending on the primary source of the Ca 2+ signal. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • pathway
  • There was a compensatory up-regulation of COX-2, accompanied by the activation of the NF-κB pathway, and also an increase in the upstream cPLA 2 and sPLA 2 enzymes. (wiley.com)
  • induce
  • Drugs that induce hepatic enzymes such as Phenobarbital, Phenytoin and Rifampin may increase the clearance of corticosteroids and may require increases in corticosteroid dose to achieve the desired response. (inceptapharma.com)
  • Secretion of this enzyme is thought to induce inflammatory responses in neighboring cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymatic
  • They can serve to increase enzymatic activities of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme has also been identified as PLA2G16, HRASLS3, HREV107, HREV107-3, MGC118754 or H-REV107-1 from studies on class II tumor suppression but not on its enzymatic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • The extracellular forms of phospholipases A2 have been isolated from different venoms (snake, bee, and wasp), from virtually every studied mammalian tissue (including pancreas and kidney) as well as from bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Prostaglandins are highly potent substances that are not stored but are produced as needed by cell membranes in virtually every body tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bazan demonstrated that brain ischemia triggers the release of free essential fatty acids (arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid) from membranes during seizures and ischemia through phospholipase A2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then his laboratory identified an activating enzyme for docosahexaenoic acid with very low Km, which allows photoreceptors and other excitable membranes to retain this fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Different prostaglandins have been found to raise or lower blood pressure and regulate smooth muscle activity and glandular secretion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It specifically acts to up-regulate the enzyme cholesterol side chain cleaving enzyme, which leads to the greater conversion of cholesterol into androgen precursors required to make many steroid hormones, including testosterone and estrogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • This enzyme normally breaks down a natural pain-relieving neurotransmitter known as 2-AG, a "cannabinoid" molecule whose actions are mimicked by certain compounds within marijuana. (scripps.edu)
  • lipoxygenase
  • The enzyme 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12) metabolizes arachidonic acid to 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE0 which may then be metabolized to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and to hepoxilins. (wikipedia.org)
  • vasodilation
  • An important example of the vasodilatory action of prostaglandins is found in the kidneys , in which widespread vasodilation leads to an increase in the flow of blood to the kidneys and an increase in the excretion of sodium in the urine. (britannica.com)
  • membrane
  • Phospholipase C activity generates second messengers, inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) which increase levels of intracellular calcium, and recruits Protein kinase C (PKC) and RasGRP to the membrane. (powershow.com)
  • This could have immense effects on the signaling functions of ceramide because it is known that ceramide generated by acidic SMase enzymes in the outer leaflet of an organelle membrane may have different roles compared to ceramide that is formed in the inner leaflet by the action of neutral SMase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This class of proteins has been implicated in the regulation of cytoskeleton assembly, cytosolic enzymes, and membrane dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme is activated by increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and phosphorylation, resulting in its translocation from the cytosol and nucleus to perinuclear membrane vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGD2
  • Studies suggest that at least some if not most or all of the cytotoxic effects of cylopenenone prostaglandin derivatives of PGD2 act independently of DP2. (wikipedia.org)
  • acidic
  • Moreover, there is also sufficient evidence which implicates ceramide to the activation of the kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR), PKCζ, and cathepsin D. Interestingly, cathepsin D has been proposed as the main target for ceramide formed in organelles called lysosomes, making lysosomal acidic SMase enzymes one of the key players in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein
  • Enzymes can modify protein function by covalent modification. (powershow.com)
  • These include enzymes called ceramide-activated Ser-Thr phosphatases (CAPPs), such as protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A), which were found to interact with ceramide in studies done in a controlled environment outside of a living organism (in vitro). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, studies in cells have shown that ceramide-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha α (TNFα) and palmitate induce the ceramide-dependent removal of a phosphate group (dephosphorylation) of the retinoblastoma gene product RB and the enzymes, protein kinases B (AKT protein family) and C α (PKB and PKCα). (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Ceramide can also be broken down by enzymes called ceramidases, leading to the formation of sphingosine, Moreover, a phosphate group can be attached to ceramide (phosphorylation) by the enzyme, ceramide kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, experiments with cPLA2α knockout mice have provided further evidence for the central role of this enzyme in inflammation. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • fatty
  • Mammalian cells lack the enzyme omega-3 desaturase and therefore cannot convert omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Closely related omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids act as competing substrates for the same enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excess omega-6 fatty acids from vegetable oils interfere with the health benefits of omega-3 fats, in part because they compete for the same rate-limiting enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutral
  • Examples of glucocorticoid-responsive genes include those that encode annexin A1, TSC22D3 (also known as GILZ), angiotensin-converting enzyme, neutral endopeptidase and other anti-inflammatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • There are two isozymes of COX encoded by distinct gene products: a constitutive COX-1 (this enzyme) and an inducible COX-2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • action
  • A sugar can be attached to ceramide (glycosylation) through the action of the enzymes, glucosyl or galactosyl ceramide synthases. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Many of the medications used to treat and manage these conditions work by blocking the effects of the COX-2 enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • activities
  • Due to such utilization of apricots and the deteriorating characteristic of enzymes in oils, the present study was conducted to observe the enzymes activities in vast range of pH, temperatures and organic solvents to establish an optimum condition at which lipase and phospholipase shows their maximum activities. (thefreedictionary.com)