• Metabolism
  • 2 3 Because cough is a class effect of ACEIs, and because its occurrence is not predicted by any external factors, it seems reasonable to suspect that a primary, genetically determined characteristic resulting in alteration of drug action or drug metabolism may be responsible. (ahajournals.org)
  • The test is most commonly used to diagnose abnormal homocysteine metabolism in people who have a high risk for cardiovascular disease but who have normal baseline homocysteine levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • MiR-143 has also been experimentally shown to regulate genes that are crucial for adipocyte differentiation, (including GLUT4, Hormone-sensitive lipase, the fatty acid-binding protein, aP2 and PPAR-γ2), demonstrating that miRNAs are also involved in fat metabolism and endocrine function in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • prenatal
  • Variation in maternal or offspring genes encoding estrogen-metabolizing enzymes could influence the level of exposure to prenatal catechol estrogens and could therefore serve as biomarkers in a retrospective study of hormonal risk factors for TGCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For Preventing Tay-Sachs disease, three main approaches have been used to prevent or reduce the incidence of Tay-Sachs disease in those who are at high risk: Prenatal diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prenatal testing can be performed by assay of HEX A enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both carrier and prenatal testing using enzyme assay became available in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • COMT
  • 6,8 So far, the most promising TRD-associated genes code for the serotonin transporter SLC6A4, presynaptic serotonin autoreceptor 5-HTR1A, catechol- O -methyltransferase (COMT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and the transcription factor CREB1. (cmeinstitute.com)
  • chromosome
  • DNA damage can be recognized by enzymes, and thus can be correctly repaired using the complementary undamaged sequence in a homologous chromosome if it is available for copying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some expression vectors may have elements for transformation or the insertion of DNA into the host chromosome, for example the vir genes for plant transformation, and integrase sites for chromosomal insertion. (wikipedia.org)
  • For genes on an autosome (any chromosome other than a sex chromosome), the alleles and their associated traits are autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA in each chromosome functions as a series of discrete genes that influence various traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The AH receptor is phylogenetically highly conserved transcription factor with a history of at least 500 million years, and found in all vertebrates, and its ancient analogs are important regulatory proteins even in more primitive species. (wikipedia.org)
  • catechol
  • These results support the hypothesis that maternal and/or offspring catechol estrogen activity may influence sons' risk of TGCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conducted a population-based, case-parent triad study ( 16 ) to test whether TGCC risk is related to maternal and/or offspring variation in genes involved in catechol estrogen formation ( CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4 , and CYP3A5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • humans
  • In a small clinical study in humans published in 2008, epigenetic differences were linked to differences in risk-taking and reactions to stress in monozygotic twins. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • GAD1- GAD1 codes for the protein GAD67, an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of GABA from glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A missense or nonsense mutation to the genes that code for the fibrinogen protein are affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) genes such as pkaR are highly also expressed during dimorphic shift. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Bacterial infection may also increase the risk of cancer, as seen in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreas
  • These adenocarcinomas start within the part of the pancreas which makes digestive enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vast majority of cases (about 99%) occur in the part of the pancreas which produces digestive enzymes, known as the exocrine component. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cancer originates in the ducts that carry secretions (such as enzymes and bicarbonate) away from the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • For the CD patients, none of the variables assessed qualified as a relevant CDI risk factor using either univariate or multivariate analyses. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • expression
  • Behavioral epigenetics attempts to provide a framework for understanding how the expression of genes is influenced by experiences and the environment to produce individual differences in behaviour, cognition, personality, and mental health. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that many Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation and expression of genes such as DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This happens because miR-9 down-regulated the transcription factor Onecut2 (OC2) that controls the expression of Rab27a effector granuphilin, a key factor in controlling insulin release. (wikipedia.org)
  • in fact it has been shown that high doses of TCDD either increase or decrease the expression of several hundred genes in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • The enzyme is initially primed into a reactive state by the transfer of a methyl group from N5-MeTHF to Co(I) in enzyme-bound cobalamin(Cob), forming methyl-cobalamin(Me-Cob) that now contains Me-Co(III) and activating the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, a Hcy that has coordinated to an enzyme-bound zinc to form a reactive thiolate reacts with the Me-Cob. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cob domain contains Cob sandwiched between several large alpha helices and bound to the enzyme so that the cobalt atom of the group is exposed for contact with other domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • onset
  • Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. (hindawi.com)
  • Variety of risk factors and nonatopic nature of adult-onset disease suggest that variety of mechanisms is involved in the disease pathogenesis and that these mechanisms differ from the pathobiology of childhood-onset asthma with prevailing Th2 airway inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma and to concentrate on the mechanisms and mediators involved in establishing adult-onset asthma in response to specific risk factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Age at asthma onset has emerged as a critical factor in distinguishing these phenotypes. (hindawi.com)
  • Factors predisposing to adult-onset asthma include female sex, obesity, occupational exposure, rhinitis, respiratory infections, smoking, stressful life events, and low level of lung function [ 10 - 13 ] suggesting that adult-onset asthma may develop through a variety of mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma, concentrating on the known risk factors and on the mechanisms of how these factors might be involved in establishing asthma. (hindawi.com)
  • The epigenetics of schizophrenia is the study of how the inherited epigenetic changes is regulated and modified by the environment and external factors, and how these changes shape and influence the onset and development of, and vulnerability to, schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • The two methods are used in tandem because an enzyme assay can detect all mutations with some inconclusive results, while mutation analysis can give definite results, but only for known mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • A mutation cannot be recognized by enzymes once the base change is present in both DNA strands, and thus a mutation cannot be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • individuals
  • This finding may contribute to early identification of individuals at risk and suggests a mechanism that can be targeted in future studies aiming to prevent or limit negative outcomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • A better understanding of mechanisms for psychiatric risk or resilience after childhood trauma exposure is needed for the identification of individuals at risk and delivery of early interventions. (frontiersin.org)
  • As an example, they described a study showing that centenarians of 100 to 107 years of age had higher levels of two DNA repair enzymes, PARP1 and Ku70, than general-population old individuals of 69 to 75 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals seeking carrier screening are couples from at-risk populations who are seeking to start a family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme assay techniques detect individuals with lower levels of hexosaminidase A. Development of a serum enzyme assay test made it feasible to conduct large scale screening for Tay-Sachs in targeted at-risk populations such as Ashkenazi Jews. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • The mechanism of the enzyme depends on the constant regeneration of Co(I) in cob, but this is not always guaranteed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic
  • Several genes have been identified as important in the study of schizophrenia, but there are a few that have special roles when studying the epigenetic modifications of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • These epigenetic mechanisms are believed to be a contributing factor to pathological diseases such as Diabetes type II. (wikipedia.org)
  • monozygotic twins
  • The fact that even monozygotic twins don't share a 100% concordance rate suggests environmental factors play a role in the vulnerability and development of the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyl
  • Cob(I)alamin is oxidised to cob(II)alamin about once every 100 methyl transfer cycles, rendering the cob(I)alamin-MTR-enzyme complex inactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactivation of this enzyme complex occurs through reductive remethylation by MTRR, utilizing S-adenosylmethionine as a methyl donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated methyl group is transferred from Me-Cob to the Hcy thiolate, which regenerates Co(I) in cob, and Met is released from the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Exposure to relatively high circulating maternal estrogen levels during pregnancy has long been suspected as being a risk factor for TGCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Elevated levels of homocysteine show an increased risk for (1) hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), which could eventually result in a heart attack and/or stroke, and (2) blood clots in the veins, referred to as venous thrombosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this condition, a defective enzyme causes an accumulation of homocysteine in the blood, resulting in very high levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Studies of children with homocystinuria led to the discovery that elevated homocysteine levels are a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis and blood clots in the arteries and veins. (ahajournals.org)
  • Low air quality from factors such as traffic pollution or high ozone levels has been associated with both asthma development and increased asthma severity. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Trauma exposure during childhood is a well-known risk factor for later development of psychiatric disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, a recent review concludes that, after 1997, further studies do not support an association between TCDD exposure and cancer risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental factors include exposure to air pollution and allergens. (wikipedia.org)
  • carrier
  • Moreover, hippocampal activation mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and psychiatric risk or resilience in the Val/Val, but not in the Met carrier group. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genomic
  • Genomic analysis of M. racemosus has revealed genes similar to human RAS genes, and it is proposed that these genes help with germination and dimorphism. (wikipedia.org)
  • While infections have many effects, infectious organisms that increase the risk of cancer are frequently a source of DNA damage or genomic instability, as discussed below for oncogenic viruses and an oncogenic bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the high-risk HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins can each independently induce genomic instability in normal human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • homocysteine
  • Further studies are needed to clarify the role of homocysteine in atherosclerosis and thrombosis and to determine whether lowering the homocysteine level is effective in decreasing the risk for blood clots. (ahajournals.org)
  • patients
  • Patients with residual symptoms of depression at the end of acute treatment are at a higher risk of recurrence, relapse, and TRD. (cmeinstitute.com)
  • Excessive stress, another common TRD risk factor, may result in neuronal structural alterations that contribute to the reduced prefrontal cortex and hippocampus volumes seen in patients with depression. (cmeinstitute.com)
  • Therefore, it is still important to explore other risk factors with possible therapeutic applications in these patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CDI in IBD patients in China. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • Hospitalized for ≥ 3 days and use of antibiotics or immunomodulators may predict higher risk of CDI for UC patients. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • RATIONALE: A study that evaluates DNA changes and other disease-related health information in patients with Barrett's esophagus, gastroesophageal reflux, or gastrointestinal bleeding may help doctors learn more about the risk factors for Barrett's esophagus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: This clinical trial is looking at DNA changes and other disease-related health information as risk factors for Barrett's esophagus in patients with Barrett's esophagus, gastroesophageal reflux, or gastrointestinal bleeding. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Another risk factor is low birth weight (LBW), and in a study done on that, it was found that there was increased DNA methylation in the LBW patients' muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over half of the world's population is colonized with H. pylori and it is estimated that H. pylori-positive patients have a 1-2% risk of developing distal gastric cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Among the HPV high-risk viruses, the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins functionally inactivate the p53 and retinoblastoma tumor suppressors respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • One obvious function is to increase the activity of enzymes breaking down foreign chemicals or normal chemicals of the body as needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • More recently, with the decoding of the human genome, there had been a focus on identifying specific genes to study the disease. (wikipedia.org)