• Pollution
  • Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 4, 5 Other known risk factors for COPD-including occupational exposure, air pollution, airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and genetic disease such as α 1 -antitrypsin deficiency-are also important. (bmj.com)
  • risk
  • We review the empirical valuation literature on pesticide risk exposure and develop a taxonomy of environmental and human health risks associated with pesticide usage. (repec.org)
  • Meta-analysis is then used to investigate the variation in willingness to pay (WTP) estimates for reduced pesticide risk exposure. (repec.org)
  • Our findings show that the WTP for reduced risk exposure is 15 per cent greater for medium, and 80 per cent greater for high risk levels, as compared with low risk levels. (repec.org)
  • A Meta-Analysis of the Willingness to Pay for Reductions in Pesticide Risk Exposure ," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19524, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association). (repec.org)