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  • induces
  • This induces long-range allostery via protein domain dynamics, causing the structure to be destabilized, resulting in the opening up of the SH3, SH2 and kinase domains and the autophosphorylation of the residue tyrosine 416. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmembrane
  • Full length human M-CSF transcripts encode a 522 amino acid (aa) type I transmembrane (TM) protein with a 464 aa extracellular region, a 21 aa TM domain, and a 37 aa cytoplasmic tail that forms a 140 kDa covalent dimer. (rndsystems.com)
  • enzyme
  • These methods allowed her to characterize UGT1A1, the gene coding for an enzyme in this family that processes the protein bilirubin, a breakdown product of hemoglobin, and to identify 12 other previously unknown and independent UGT enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owens' laboratory found that activity of UGT enzymes can be lessened by kinase inhibitors and that protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase enzymes can alter the enzyme specificity, likely contributing to their ability to detoxify a wide range of foreign chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic
  • Uniaxial cyclic strain (1 Hz, 20%) of cells cultured on elastic membranes induced a 2-fold increase in both PAR-1 mRNA and protein levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cyclic strain (20%) induced PAR-1 mRNA expression, leading to an increase in surface PAR-1 protein and an increase in cell proliferation in response to thrombin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mice
  • performed showed that chronic cocaine use induced upregulation of the NK1 receptor protein in HDAC5 knockout mice, which is associated with hyperacetylation of H3 at the NK1R gene promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Its most likely mechanism of action is activation of intracellular protein kinases in response to the binding of membrane-impermeable peptide hormones to the external cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Src contains at least three flexible protein domains, which, in conjunction with myristoylation, can mediate attachment to membranes and determine subcellular localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • This provides docking sites for 14-3-3 proteins, which mediate the export of HDAC5 out of the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • M-CSF also primes and enhances macrophage killing of tumor cells and microorganisms, regulates the release of cytokines and other inflammatory modulators from macrophages, and stimulates pinocytosis (2, 3). (rndsystems.com)
  • Phospholamban is a 52-amino acid integral membrane protein that regulates the Ca2+ pump in cardiac muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Owens' research group also identified that UGT enzymes must be activated before they can detoxify foreign chemicals and that in some cases suppressing these enzymes could enhance the effects of therapeutic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is useful for control of cellular signaling because the di-phosphorylated phosphoinositide PIP2 is only phosphorylated by the family of enzymes, PI 3-kinases (phosphoinositide 3-kinase or PI3-K), and only upon receipt of chemical messengers which tell the cell to begin the growth process. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Exocytosis is, as expected, Ca2+ dependent and appears to be under a negative control involving protein phosphorylations. (jci.org)
  • However, activation of Chk1 is not solely dependent on ATR, intermediate proteins involved in DNA replication are often necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibited protein synthesis destroys both the virus and infected host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While certain templates of programmed cell death have been known to rely on de novo protein synthesis, paraptotic cell death induced by IGFIR-IC in 293T cells is deterred by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, thus demonstrating a dependence on transcription and translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • agonist
  • Thus, activators of PKA, such as the beta-adrenergic agonist epinephrine (released by sympathetic stimulation), may enhance the rate of cardiac myocyte relaxation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • These observations demonstrate selectivity for enhancing toxicity in cells with mutated p53 (many tumor cells), whereas cells with wild-type p53 (normal cells) are spared. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • homology
  • citation needed] Akt possesses a protein domain known as a PH domain, or Pleckstrin Homology domain, named after Pleckstrin, the protein in which it was first discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • In apoptosis, HMGB1, a chromatin protein, is retained within the nucleus to result in formations of apoptotic bodies, while in paraptosis HMGB1 is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, interferons induce production of hundreds of other proteins-known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)-that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutant
  • We have reported that UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) abrogates DNA damage-induced S and G 2 arrest and enhances cytotoxicity selectively in p53 mutant cells, thus providing a potential, tumor-targeted therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • molecules
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • In addition, treatment of cells with antioxidants or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor blocked strain-induced PAR-1 expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chk1 must inactivate in order for the cell to transition from the G2 phase into mitosis, Chk1 expression levels are mediated by regulatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Specialized populations of choroid plexus epithelial cells have previously been shown to be responsible for the Methisazone transfer of individual plasma proteins from blood to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), contributing to their characteristically high concentrations in CSF of the developing brain. (proteinkinaseinhibitor.com)
  • Using a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica, we demonstrate that the albumin-binding protein SPARC (osteonectin/BM-40/culture-shock protein) is present in a subset of choroid plexus epithelial cells from its first appearance, throughout development, and into adulthood. (proteinkinaseinhibitor.com)
  • An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, Gö6976 potently abrogated S and G 2 arrest and enhanced the cytotoxicity of the topoisomerase I inhibitor SN38 only in p53-defective cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Constitutively active but not kinase-inactive PKCθ activated IKKβ in Jurkat T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • analogs
  • Thionicotinamide and other nicotinamide analogs are potential inhibitors of NADK, and studies show that treatment of colon cancer cells with thionicotinamide suppresses the cytosolic NADPH pool to increase oxidative stress and synergizes with chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • several proteins
  • Regulation of p16 is complex and involves the interaction of several transcription factors, as well as several proteins involved in epigenetic modification through methylation and repression of the promoter region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with such multiple roles, ScCdc14 has been found to bind several proteins that regulate the cell cycle and DNA replication, or that associate with the spindle or kinetochore. (wikipedia.org)
  • lysosomal
  • Hsc70 is known to localize to the cytoplasm and lysosome, where it participates in chaperone-mediated autophagy by aiding the unfolding and translocation of substrate proteins across the membrane into the lysosomal lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Thus, the activation of the HBP by nutrients represents a biochemical link between nutrient availability, mitochondrial proteins, and energy expenditure, and it is likely to play an important role in the regulation of energy balance. (jci.org)
  • Gene
  • 290. Mitra S., Ghantasala S., Sameer Kumar GS, Lakshmi BJ, Thakur SS, Kumar S. Absence of Wdr13 gene predisposes mice to mild social isolation - chronic stress, leading to depression-like phenotype associated with differential expression of synaptic proteins. (gov.pl)
  • Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 also known as ABL1 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ABL1 gene (previous symbol ABL) located on chromosome 9. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and as several other synonyms), is a tumor suppressor protein, that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 is also known as: p16Ink4A p16Ink4 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) CDKN2 CDK 4 Inhibitor Multiple Tumor Suppressor 1 (MTS1) TP16 ARF MLM P14 P19 In humans, p16 is encoded by the CDKN2A gene, located on chromosome 9 (9p21.3). (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of their structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in control of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 also known as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein or Hsc70 or Hsp73 is a heat shock protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA8 gene on chromosome 11. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFATC4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Semaphorin-3A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEMA3A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cdc14 and Cdc14 are a gene and its protein product respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, studies in cells have shown that ceramide-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha α (TNFα) and palmitate induce the ceramide-dependent removal of a phosphate group (dephosphorylation) of the retinoblastoma gene product RB and the enzymes, protein kinases B (AKT protein family) and C α (PKB and PKCα). (wikipedia.org)
  • antitumor
  • Despite its anticancer activity demonstrated in the preclinical studies as a monotherapy, multimodal strategies to enhance antitumor efficacy are essential for successful clinical outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • apoptosis
  • The mathematical relations that we have formulated can quantitatively determine how ablation of an oncogene's protein activity can result in apoptosis and/or a decrease in proliferation within a population of tumor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Caspase 3 is responsible for cellular differentiation, although it is unclear how this kind of protein can promote the cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its functions contribute to biological processes including signal transduction, apoptosis, autophagy, protein homeostasis, and cell growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, its role in protein folding contributes to its function in signal transduction, apoptosis, protein homeostasis, and cell growth and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saccharomyces
  • Many early studies, especially in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, demonstrated that the protein plays a key role in regulating late mitotic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the species in which Cdc14 activity is best understood and most-studied, the activity of Cdc14 (ScCdc14) leads to mitotic exit by dephosphorylating targets of Cdk1, a well-studied cyclin-dependent protein kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • p16 was originally found in an "open reading frame of 148 amino acids encoding a protein of molecular weight 15,845 comprising four ankyrin repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from the "leucine zipper" and the "basic region" which are important for dimerization and DNA-binding, the c-jun protein contains three short regions, which consist of clusters of negatively charged amino acids in its N-terminal half that are important for transcriptional activation in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycogen phosphorylase monomer is a large protein, composed of 842 amino acids with a mass of 97.434 kDa in muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional
  • Once the inhibitor is released and in order to properly function, two CAD monomers need to come together to form a functional dimer that has vertical symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • In vivo, AM administration not only enhanced the differentiation of MNC into endothelial cells but also produced mature vessels that included smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, the purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate whether local infusion of AM enhances the angiogenic potency of MNC transplantation in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia and (2) to investigate the effects of AM on the survival, adhesion, and differentiation of transplanted MNCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • promoter
  • When expressing the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein from the EF-1 alpha promoter, 83% of the Jurkat Tet-On 3G clones showed strong inducible expression and 33% demonstrated very high inducibility (greater than 2,000-fold). (clontech.com)
  • vectors
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • humans
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the genes NADK and MNADK encode NAD+ kinases localized in cytosol and mitochondria, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • interferons
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, interferons induce production of hundreds of other proteins-known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)-that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural
  • This structural motif twists two alpha helical protein domains into a "coiled coil," characterized by a periodicity of 3.5 residues per turn and repetitive leucines appearing at every seventh position of the polypeptide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • Mainly because DDK is often mis-regulated in human cancer cells, it happens to be a therapeutic concentrate on and a variety of DDK inhibitors are at the moment in scientific trials. (thezenweb.com)
  • targets
  • MicroRNA-101 targets DNA-PKcs via binding to the 3'- UTR of DNA-PKcs mRNA and efficiently reduces protein levels of DNA-PKcs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous research works have focused interest on defining the direct protein targets of action of ceramide. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • This secreted Sema3A protein can function as either a chemorepulsive agent, inhibiting axonal outgrowth, or as a chemoattractive agent, stimulating the growth of apical dendrites. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Additional data in support of this theory was later obtained from studies in zebrafish, where its Cdc14 proteins were also found to localize to the basal body and play roles in the formation of cilia, which are short forms of flagella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction
  • PRC1 and PRC2 are two protein complexes that modify the expression of p16 through the interaction of various transcription factors that execute methylation patterns that can repress transcription of p16. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Epigenetic reduction or absence of let-7a microRNA allows high expression of the HMGA2 protein and this would lead to defective expression of DNA-PKcs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, NFAT3 (NFATc4) is an inhibitor of cell motility by blocking the expression of LCN2. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • A stage 2 clinical trial investigating the efficacy and security of While602801, a recently developed JNK inhibitor, in the treating inflammatory endometriosis is complete. (biomasswars.com)