• receptors
  • Similarly, Cα-PKA increased P O,PEAK for recombinant GluR1 receptors (0.78) compared with patches excised from cells cotransfected with a cDNA encoding the PKA peptide inhibitor PKI ( P O,PEAK 0.50) or patches with calcineurin included in the pipette ( P O,PEAK 0.42). (jneurosci.org)
  • Mechanistic explanations underlying these effects were explained in a later study conducted in the ankyrin-B (-/+) mice, which showed that reduction of ankyrin-B alters the transport of sodium and calcium and enhances the coupled openings of ryanodine receptors, which results in a higher frequency of calcium sparks and waves of calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of a TGF beta family ligand causes the rotation of the receptors so that their cytoplasmic kinase domains are arranged in a catalytically favorable orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • These methods allowed her to characterize UGT1A1, the gene coding for an enzyme in this family that processes the protein bilirubin, a breakdown product of hemoglobin, and to identify 12 other previously unknown and independent UGT enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein synthesis of both viral and host genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclic
  • Uniaxial cyclic strain (1 Hz, 20%) of cells cultured on elastic membranes induced a 2-fold increase in both PAR-1 mRNA and protein levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cyclic strain (20%) induced PAR-1 mRNA expression, leading to an increase in surface PAR-1 protein and an increase in cell proliferation in response to thrombin. (ahajournals.org)
  • intracellular
  • Its most likely mechanism of action is activation of intracellular protein kinases in response to the binding of membrane-impermeable peptide hormones to the external cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Exocytosis is, as expected, Ca2+ dependent and appears to be under a negative control involving protein phosphorylations. (jci.org)
  • We have synthesized analogues of these compounds, identifying more selective sirtuin inhibitors and more potent calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors.The sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that regulate cellular aging and gene silencing in simple organisms and appear to play important regulatory roles in human cells that make them attractive anti-cancer targets. (washington.edu)
  • Activation of p16 and p21 proteins downregulated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin A, cyclin D1 and cyclin E and thus induced S-phase cell cycle arrest in NMSC cells with reduced expression of cell division proteins Cdc25a and Cdc25b. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Exposure of the bag cell neurons of Aplysia to activators of protein kinase C, such as phorbol esters, enhances electrically evoked action potentials by increasing the voltage-dependent calcium current. (jneurosci.org)
  • The differential effects of the MEK inhibitors on cell survival were not dependent on p53 status or effects on the ERK5 pathway. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cyclins function as regulators of cyclin-dependent kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, activation of Chk1 is not solely dependent on ATR, intermediate proteins involved in DNA replication are often necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is found as a pentamer and is a major substrate for the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediate
  • Src contains at least three flexible protein domains, which, in conjunction with myristoylation, can mediate attachment to membranes and determine subcellular localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • This provides docking sites for 14-3-3 proteins, which mediate the export of HDAC5 out of the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • M-CSF also primes and enhances macrophage killing of tumor cells and microorganisms, regulates the release of cytokines and other inflammatory modulators from macrophages, and stimulates pinocytosis (2, 3). (rndsystems.com)
  • Phospholamban is a 52-amino acid integral membrane protein that regulates the Ca2+ pump in cardiac muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proto-oncogene
  • Src (pronounced "sarc" as it is short for sarcoma) is a proto-oncogene encoding a tyrosine kinase originally discovered by J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus, for which they were awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Owens' research group also identified that UGT enzymes must be activated before they can detoxify foreign chemicals and that in some cases suppressing these enzymes could enhance the effects of therapeutic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is useful for control of cellular signaling because the di-phosphorylated phosphoinositide PIP2 is only phosphorylated by the family of enzymes, PI 3-kinases (phosphoinositide 3-kinase or PI3-K), and only upon receipt of chemical messengers which tell the cell to begin the growth process. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • This induces long-range allostery via protein domain dynamics, causing the structure to be destabilized, resulting in the opening up of the SH3, SH2 and kinase domains and the autophosphorylation of the residue tyrosine 416. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis
  • Therefore, paraptosis was concluded to differ from apoptosis (cell death type 1) in being unaffected by inhibitors of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In apoptosis, HMGB1, a chromatin protein, is retained within the nucleus to result in formations of apoptotic bodies, while in paraptosis HMGB1 is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibited protein synthesis destroys both the virus and infected host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While certain templates of programmed cell death have been known to rely on de novo protein synthesis, paraptotic cell death induced by IGFIR-IC in 293T cells is deterred by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, thus demonstrating a dependence on transcription and translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, interferons induce production of hundreds of other proteins-known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)-that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • agonist
  • Thus, activators of PKA, such as the beta-adrenergic agonist epinephrine (released by sympathetic stimulation), may enhance the rate of cardiac myocyte relaxation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • In addition, treatment of cells with antioxidants or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor blocked strain-induced PAR-1 expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, strain-enhanced PAR-1 expression may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the NADPH oxidase pathway and is negatively regulated through protein kinase C (PKC). (ahajournals.org)
  • One of these inhibitors, the p.o. active ZD1839, has marked effects against the growth of the A431 tumor, which exhibits high levels of expression of EGFR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chk1 must inactivate in order for the cell to transition from the G2 phase into mitosis, Chk1 expression levels are mediated by regulatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCND2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sprouty homolog 2 (Drosophila), also known as SPRY2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SPRY2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein belonging to the sprouty family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NK1R gene promoter has been associated with enhanced response to cocaine reward, meaning HDAC5 in normal genomes may decrease cocaine reward with chronic cocaine exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholamban, also known as PLN or PLB, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLN gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peroxiredoxin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRDX1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • Ankyrin-B is a member of the ankyrin family of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, research found that caspase inhibitors (zVAD.fmk, p53, BAF), x-chromosome-linked inhibitor (xiap), and Bcl-xL( from the Bcl-2 family) did not prevent cell death in 293T cells when induced by IGFIR-IC. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • In general, we advise purchasing the recombinant protein with BSA for use in cell or tissue culture, or as an ELISA standard. (rndsystems.com)
  • The height and width of electrically evoked action potentials in bag cell neurons can also be enhanced by cAMP analogs or agents that elevate cAMP. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have found that microinjection of a protein inhibitor of cAMP-PK (PKA-I) into isolated bag cell neurons prevents and reverses the effect of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin on action potentials of these cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Individual MEK inhibitors had similar effects in all three cell lines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • An inhibitor of several protein kinases, tesevatinib (XL647, KD019) entered Phase II clinical trial for certain indications of non-small cell lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is indirectly involved in the non-cell autonomous inhibitory effect on fibroblast growth factor two signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurite outgrowth instigated by bucladesine in cell cultures has been shown to be enhanced by nardosinone. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • These observations demonstrate selectivity for enhancing toxicity in cells with mutated p53 (many tumor cells), whereas cells with wild-type p53 (normal cells) are spared. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)