• coli
  • It is possible to have something that is microbiologically sterile but which contains endotoxin, example, an autoclaved suspension of E. coli will be sterile but will be packed with endotoxin. (bio.net)
  • The lipid portion of the outer layer of the outer membrane is completely composed of endotoxin molecules (see figure Schematic diagram of the envelope of E. coli ). (qiagen.com)
  • A single E. coli cell contains about 2 million LPS molecules, each consisting of a hydrophobic lipid A moiety, a complex array of sugar residues and negatively charged phosphate groups (see figure Schematic diagram of the endotoxin molecule ). (qiagen.com)
  • Twenty-four people were injected with E. coli endotoxin , and researchers tracked their immune responses. (merriam-webster.com)
  • hydrophobic
  • Therefore, each endotoxin molecule possesses hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and charged regions giving it unique features with respect to possible interactions with other molecules. (qiagen.com)
  • Endotoxins are small, stable, bacterially-derived hydrophobic molecules which can easily contaminate labware and whose presence can significantly impact both in vitro and in vivo experiments. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • toxic
  • Endotoxins consist of a core polysaccharide chain, O-specific polysaccharide side chains (O-antigen) and a lipid component, Lipid A, which is responsible for the toxic effects (see figure). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • septic
  • To test Marik's protocol, Catravas and his team cultured endothelial cells from lung tissue and exposed them to the endotoxin found in septic patients. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The presence of endotoxin in products for injection (vaccines and injectable drugs) can result in pyrogenic responses ranging from fever and chills to irreversible and fatal septic shock. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • molecule
  • and in anion-exchange chromatography, the negative charges present on the endotoxin molecule can interact with anion exchange resins, thus leading to copurification of endotoxins with the plasmid DNA. (qiagen.com)
  • 1998
  • Trautmann M, Zick R, Rukavina T, Cross AS, Marre R (1998) Antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin: in-vitro comparison of meropenem and other antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • antibody
  • Baumgartner JD, Glauser MP, McCutchan JA, et al (1985) Prevention of gram-negative shock and death in surgical patients by antibody to endotoxin core glycolipid. (springer.com)
  • Hamilton-Davies C, Barclay GR, Cardigan RA, et al (1997) Relationship between pre-operative endotoxin core antibody levels, gut perfusion and outcome following cardiac valve surgery. (springer.com)
  • vitro
  • Endotoxins also interfere with in vitro transfection into immune cells such as macrophages and B cells by causing nonspecific activation of immune responses. (qiagen.com)
  • To minimize these concerns, it is essential to use reagents and biomaterials which are virtually endotoxin-free for both in vitro and in vivo biomedical research. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Endotoxins affect both in vitro and in vivo cell growth and function and are a source of significant variability. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vitro, there is increasing evidence that endotoxin cause a variety of problems for cell culture research. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 2017
  • Our White Paper, "Trends in Endotoxin Testing - Exploring the Hottest Topics of 2017 and Beyond" available in our QC Insider™ Library, explores the trends, issues and opportunities discussed at our 2017 Global Endotoxin Testing Summit. (lonza.com)
  • immune
  • The way endotoxins interact with the host cells is fundamental to understanding the mechanism of sepsis, and recent research on these aspects of endotoxins has served to illuminate previously undescribed functions of the innate immune system. (springer.com)
  • There is growing concern that the presence of bacterial endotoxins in media and matrices used in cell culture, cell therapy, and tissue engineering applications may induce aberrant cell function and host immune reactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Usually, an endotoxin is part of the bacterial outer membrane, and it is not released until the bacterium is killed by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitric oxide
  • Cyclooxygenase and/or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors did not alter the response to endotoxin, whereas prior administration of hydrocortisone abolished the effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • researchers
  • Glycosan BioSystems' HyStem ™ line of ultrapure, low-endotoxin hydrogels help researchers obtain more reliable results by minimizing cell or host response to these contaminants. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, unless the sample is water, some components of the solution may interfere with the LAL test such that the recovery of endotoxin is affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • Endotoxins strongly influence transfection of DNA into primary cells and sensitive cultured cells, and increased endotoxin levels lead to sharply reduced transfection efficiencies. (qiagen.com)
  • Thorough cleanliness in labware, raw materials, and in lab technique is required to substantially reduce endotoxin levels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Among the effects documented were the stimulation of leukocyte cultures to produce tissue factors, the induced production of IL-6 in equine macrophages, and the inhibition of murine erythroid colony formation by very low levels (less than 1ng/mL) of endotoxin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The authors found the strongest relationship between asthma, asthma medications, and wheezing came from endotoxin levels in bedroom floor and bedding dust. (innovations-report.com)
  • tubes
  • When carrying out endotoxin tests, tubes and pipettes are generally made from glass which can be sterilised in a hot air oven at 200C. (bio.net)
  • symptoms
  • This study clearly demonstrates significant relationships between household endotoxin and diagnosed asthma, recent asthma symptoms, current use of asthma medications, and wheezing," said Dr. Thorne. (innovations-report.com)