• coli
  • It is possible to have something that is microbiologically sterile but which contains endotoxin, example, an autoclaved suspension of E. coli will be sterile but will be packed with endotoxin. (bio.net)
  • The lipid portion of the outer layer of the outer membrane is completely composed of endotoxin molecules (see figure Schematic diagram of the envelope of E. coli ). (qiagen.com)
  • A single E. coli cell contains about 2 million LPS molecules, each consisting of a hydrophobic lipid A moiety, a complex array of sugar residues and negatively charged phosphate groups (see figure Schematic diagram of the endotoxin molecule ). (qiagen.com)
  • Twenty-four people were injected with E. coli endotoxin , and researchers tracked their immune responses. (merriam-webster.com)
  • vitro
  • Endotoxins also interfere with in vitro transfection into immune cells such as macrophages and B cells by causing nonspecific activation of immune responses. (qiagen.com)
  • Trautmann M, Zick R, Rukavina T, Cross AS, Marre R (1998) Antibiotic-induced release of endotoxin: in-vitro comparison of meropenem and other antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • To minimize these concerns, it is essential to use reagents and biomaterials which are virtually endotoxin-free for both in vitro and in vivo biomedical research. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Endotoxins affect both in vitro and in vivo cell growth and function and are a source of significant variability. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vitro, there is increasing evidence that endotoxin cause a variety of problems for cell culture research. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • septic
  • To test Marik's protocol, Catravas and his team cultured endothelial cells from lung tissue and exposed them to the endotoxin found in septic patients. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The presence of endotoxin in products for injection (vaccines and injectable drugs) can result in pyrogenic responses ranging from fever and chills to irreversible and fatal septic shock. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • molecules
  • The chemical structure and properties of endotoxin molecules and their tendency to form micellar structures lead to copurification of endotoxins with plasmid DNA. (qiagen.com)
  • For example, in CsCl ultracentrifugation, the CsCl-banded DNA is easily contaminated with endotoxin molecules, which have a similar density in CsCl to plasmid-ethidium bromide complexes. (qiagen.com)
  • The endotoxin removal buffer prevents LPS molecules from binding to the resin in the QIAGEN-tips allowing purification of DNA containing less than 0.1 endotoxin units per µg plasmid DNA. (qiagen.com)
  • humans
  • Furthermore, it is extremely important to use endotoxin-free plasmid DNA for gene therapy applications, since endotoxins cause fever, endotoxic shock syndrome, and activation of the complement cascade in animals and humans. (qiagen.com)
  • 2017
  • Our White Paper, "Trends in Endotoxin Testing - Exploring the Hottest Topics of 2017 and Beyond" available in our QC Insider™ Library, explores the trends, issues and opportunities discussed at our 2017 Global Endotoxin Testing Summit. (lonza.com)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, endotoxin has been extensively studied in animal tumor models to determine the conditions under which it may be used most effectively against tumors. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, unless the sample is water, some components of the solution may interfere with the LAL test such that the recovery of endotoxin is affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • The way endotoxins interact with the host cells is fundamental to understanding the mechanism of sepsis, and recent research on these aspects of endotoxins has served to illuminate previously undescribed functions of the innate immune system. (springer.com)
  • There is growing concern that the presence of bacterial endotoxins in media and matrices used in cell culture, cell therapy, and tissue engineering applications may induce aberrant cell function and host immune reactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Usually, an endotoxin is part of the bacterial outer membrane, and it is not released until the bacterium is killed by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitric oxide
  • Cyclooxygenase and/or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors did not alter the response to endotoxin, whereas prior administration of hydrocortisone abolished the effects. (ahajournals.org)