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  • neuroendocrine
  • The following grading scheme is currently recommended for all gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms by the World Health Organisation: If mitotic count and ki67 are discordant, the figure which gives the highest grade is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • The adrenal cortex is composed of three distinct layers of endocrine cells which produce critical steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are many kinds of NETs, they are treated as a group of tissue because the cells of these neoplasms share common features, such as looking similar, having special secretory granules, and often producing biogenic amines and polypeptide hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • Further, some nerve fibers penetrate into the pineal gland via the pineal stalk (central innervation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, neurons in the trigeminal ganglion innervate the gland with nerve fibers containing the neuropeptide PACAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The various kinds of cells that can give rise to NETs are present in endocrine glands and are also diffusely distributed throughout the body, most commonly Kulchitsky cells or similar enterochromaffin-like cells, that are relatively more common in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The pineal gland is located in the epithalamus, near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pineal gland is a midline brain structure that is unpaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • It is also located behind the third ventricle and is bathed in cerebrospinal fluid supplied through a small pineal recess of the third ventricle which projects into the stalk of the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The human pineal gland grows in size until about 1-2 years of age, remaining stable thereafter, although its weight increases gradually from puberty onwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • The pineal gland, also called the pineal body, is part of the epithalamus, and lies between the laterally positioned thalamic bodies and behind the habenular commissure. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • The results of various scientific research in evolutionary biology, comparative neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, have explained the phylogeny of the pineal gland in different vertebrate species. (wikipedia.org)