• small cell carc
  • As opposed to the focal type of neuroendocrine differentiation seen in prostatic adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma of the prostate, in turn, exhibit a universal type in that virtually all the constituent tumor cells display neuroendocrine features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemically, prostatic small cell carcinoma are positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), CD56, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, calcitonin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, while lacking, or rarely and weakly expressing, androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells can be the source of several types of lung cancer- most notably, small cell carcinoma of the lung, and bronchial carcinoid tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight major taxa of lung carcinomas are recognized within the WHO-2004 classification: Small-cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Large-cell carcinoma Adenosquamous carcinoma Sarcomatoid carcinoma Carcinoid Salivary gland-like carcinoma The subclassification of GCCL among these major taxa has undergone significant changes in recent decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Frequency and number of neuroendocrine tumor cells in Prostate cancer: no difference between radical Prostatectomy specimens from patients with and without neoadjuvant hormonal therapy," The Prostate , vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 645-652, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Aoyagi T, Summerskill WHJ: Gastric secretion with ulcerogenic islet cell tumor: Importance of basal acid output. (springer.com)
  • They were historically thought to be derived from neural crest cells, but this has since been shown to be untrue (see neuroendocrine tumor). (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical features of the syndrome depend on tumor cell type. (medscape.com)
  • The most frequently encountered products in neuroendocrine tumor cells across prostate cancer samples appear to be calcitonin (in more than one third of cases), neurotensin, serotonin, human chorionic gonadotropin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroendocrine tumor cells express cytokeratins that are typically expressed by luminal secretory type cells, but lack basal cell markers such as high molecular weight cytokeratin and p63. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, adjacent non-neuroendocrine tumor cells appear to display an increased expression of Ki-67. (wikipedia.org)
  • As opposed to their normal neuroendocrine counterparts, tumor neuroendocrine cells express the beta-oxidative enzyme alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, which is a recently described marker for prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of somatostatin receptors on tumor cells have been widely explored during the last two decades starting with 111 In-DTPA-Octreotide as an imaging agent followed by 68 Ga-DOTATOC/TATE positron emission tomography scanning. (thno.org)
  • Another unique feature of NETs is the expression of different receptors on the tumor cells not only typical growth regulating factor receptors such as VEGF, IGF, EGF and so forth, but peptide hormone receptors such as somatostatin receptors as well as CCK receptors, GRP receptors and so forth. (thno.org)
  • However, in a more recent series of 4,212 consecutive lung cancer cases, only one (0.024%) lesion was determined to be a "pure" giant-cell carcinoma after complete sectioning of all available tumor tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. (slicksurface.com)
  • Two morphologic types have been described: the open type, extending slender apical processes to the ductal or acinar lumen, and the closed type cells, which lack lumenal protrusions but display dendrite-like processes that extend between adjacent epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are hypothetically involved in regulating localized epithelial cell growth and regeneration through a paracrine mechanism, whereby their signaling peptides are released into the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • these substances exert direct mitogenic effects on epithelial cells and exhibit many properties akin to growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural
  • Glomus cells are very similar structurally to neurons, and they are indeed derived from the neural crest, while type II glomus cells are sustentacular cells having a similar function to neuroglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Pluripotential hormone-secreting cells belonging to the APUD cell system (see p. 132) are distributed throughout the human foregut and its endocrine derivatives . (springer.com)
  • A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. (slicksurface.com)
  • It has been argued that bacterial and viral infections during early life direct the maturing immune system toward TH1, which counterbalance proallergic responses of TH2 cells. (springer.com)
  • The diffuse endocrine system is made up of neuroendocrine cells found in the respiratory and digestive tracts. (unicornfoundation.org.au)
  • They constitute an enteric endocrine system as a subset of the endocrine system just as the enteric nervous system is a subset of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way they bring about an integration between the nervous system and the endocrine system, a process known as neuroendocrine integration. (wikipedia.org)
  • APUD cells are considered part of the neuroendocrine system, and share many staining properties with neuroendocrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This area controls most anterior pituitary cells and thereby regulates functions in the entire body, like responses to stress, cold, sleep, and the reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve fibers pick up the signals sent by glomus cells and transmit them to the central nervous system for treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior pituitary
  • At this site, these cells can release substances into small blood vessels that travel directly to the anterior pituitary gland (the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal vessels). (wikipedia.org)
  • characteristic
  • The characteristic feature of this highly lethal malignancy is the distinctive light microscopic appearance of its extremely large cells, which are bizarre and highly pleomorphic, and which often contain more than one huge, misshapen, pleomorphic nucleus ("syncytia"), which result from cell fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancers
  • NET cancers develop when these specialized cells undergo changes causing them to divide uncontrollably and grow into an abnormal tissue mass (tumour). (unicornfoundation.org.au)
  • For several decades, primary lung cancers were consistently dichotomously classified for treatment and research purposes into small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), based on an oversimplified approach that is now clearly outmoded. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiological
  • For example, the urinary bladder urothelial cells are emerging as key elements in the detection and transmission of both physiological and nociceptive stimuli in the lower urinary tract. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, these and other findings highlighted in this review suggest that neurogenic inflammation involves complex anatomical and physiological interactions among a number of cell types in the bladder wall. (springer.com)
  • mechanism
  • The APUD mechanism is another unique feature of NETs which have generated an interest over the last two decades to develop specific tracers including 11 C-5HTP, 18 F-DOPA and 11 C-hydroxyefedrin. (thno.org)
  • synapse
  • At the synaptic region, axon of the first neuron makes synapse with - dendron/cell soma/axon of second neuron. (gpatcrackers.com)
  • They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer. (slicksurface.com)
  • Autonomic ganglia innervate the glomus cells, and some presynaptic sympathetic ganglia synapse with glomus cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • vasoactive intesti
  • The signalling within the chemoreceptors is thought to be mediated by the release of neurotransmitters by the glomus cells, including dopamine, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide and enkephalins. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • Heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor. (slicksurface.com)
  • Giant-cell carcinomas have been reported to be diagnosed in a significantly younger population than all non-small-cell carcinomas considered as a group. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The open type cells may in addition receive regulatory signals from luminal molecules The developmental origin of these cells is as yet unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • A glomus cell (type I) is a peripheral chemoreceptor, mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies, that helps the body regulate breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • NSCLC
  • the prognostic value of NSE has been demonstrated in both SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (imperial.nhs.uk)
  • Giant-cell carcinoma of the lung (GCCL) is a rare histological form of large-cell lung carcinoma, a subtype of undifferentiated lung cancer, traditionally classified within the non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). (wikipedia.org)