• eukaryotic
  • The transcriptional pattern of these genes tells us that they had picked up eukaryotic promoters and regulatory elements, thus are now under the control of the nucleus. (asmblog.org)
  • horizontal gene tra
  • N. gonorrheoea has a high affinity for horizontal gene transfer, and as a result, the existence of any strain resistant to a given drug could spread easily across strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • There's a large pool of bacterial species whose sodium channels might have slightly different electrical characteristics to draw from," said Nguyen. (innovations-report.com)
  • An early tomato was developed that contained an antifreeze gene ( afa3 ) from the winter flounder with the aim of increasing the tomato's tolerance to frost, which became an icon in the early years of the debate over genetically modified foods , especially in relation to the perceived ethical dilemma of combining genes from different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the bacterial species, this gene may be referred to as sigE. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some bacterial species, such as Clostridium botulinum, this sigma factor may be necessary for sporulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Transcriptome profiles showed that global transcriptional alterations were similar to those for S. aureus after treatment with lethal concentrations of mupirocin, including the repression of genes involved in transcription, translation and replication machineries. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The plasmids containing TEM-1 could be passed from bacterium to bacterium via conjugation Quinolones are a class of synthetic antibiotics that inhibit DNA replication, recombination, and repair by interacting with the bacterial DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • A second copy of the tomato gene polygalacturonase was inserted into the tomato genome in the antisense direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the mutation causes an interesting effect, scientists can identify the mutated gene by locating the transposon, sequencing the DNA surrounding the transposon and mapping its location in the genome. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • expression
  • A promoter region upstream of these genes acts as molecular on/off switch that regulates their expression. (bio-rad.com)
  • Also plausible is the need for regulation à la eukaryote, making the expression of organelle genes subordinate to that of the cell. (asmblog.org)
  • S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM), synthesized from methionine and ATP, is a methyl group donor in many important transfer reactions including DNA methylation for regulation of gene expression. (genome.jp)
  • The diverse and damaging stimuli that affect DNA integrity, such as changes in the genetic sequence and modifications in gene expression, can disrupt the steady state of the cell and have serious repercussions to pathways that regulate apoptosis, senescence, and cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulation can affect any step in gene expression, including transcription initiation or termination, translation, or activity of gene products. (nih.gov)
  • It is commonly used to measure gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • A genetically modified tomato , or transgenic tomato , is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering . (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as aiming to produce novel crops, scientists produce genetically modified tomatoes to understand the function of genes naturally present in tomatoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • Monsanto's tomato was engineered with the ACC deaminase gene from the soil bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis that lowered ethylene levels by breaking down ACC. (wikipedia.org)
  • When N. gonorrhoeae encodes penA, the new PBP-2 that is synthesized is no longer recognized by the beta-lactams rendering the bacterium resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • The inflammatory setting that results from a viral or bacterial infection leads to local activation of antigen-presenting cells and can result in enhanced processing and presentation of self-antigens present at that site. (jci.org)
  • The researchers identified 273 scf genes as potentially involved in establishing infection under the skin, but two genes stood out: scfA and scfB. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Alphaproteobacteria
  • Interestingly, none of these transcribed genes are from Buchnera , but rather are from other bacterial groups, possibly Alphaproteobacteria ( Buchnera is a Gammaproteobacterium). (asmblog.org)
  • GTAs originated from different viruses have been found in several bacterial and archaeal lineages, such as Alphaproteobacteria, Spirochaetes and methanogenic archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Recombinant DNA and gene cloning are essential tools for research in molecular microbiology and medicine. (nih.gov)
  • In nuclear biology and molecular biology, a marker gene is a gene used to determine if a nucleic acid sequence has been successfully inserted into an organism's DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning
  • Gene cloning is the incorporation of a foreign gene into a vector to produce a recombinant DNA molecule that replicates and expresses the foreign gene in a recipient cell. (nih.gov)
  • MotB
  • More specifically, MotA and MotB make the stator of a H+ driven bacterial flagellum and surround the rotor as a ring of about 8-10 particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • Several external and intrinsic factors appear to either induce or inhibit the transcription of this gene set and produce or suppress light emission. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenic
  • The present invention provides the first known functional method for immunizing animals via transgenic plants, where the plants express bacterial antigens that act as both immunogen and adjuvants when the transgenic plant material expressing the antigens is fed to animals. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • operon
  • An operon is a set of genes that is transcribed as a single unit and expressed coordinately. (nih.gov)
  • The bacterial luciferin-luciferase system is encoded by a set of genes labelled the lux operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • In A. fischeri, five such genes (luxCDABEG) have been identified as active in the emission of visible light, and two genes (luxR and luxI) are involved in regulating the operon. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactive
  • Whatever the reasons, most of the genes transferred to the nucleus are inactive and sooner or later will be eliminated. (asmblog.org)
  • cell
  • It codes for 1342 amino acids, making it the second-largest polypeptide in the bacterial cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotes, whose initial cell has additional or transformed genetic material, reproduce through asexual reproduction but may, in lateral gene transfer, display processes such as bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction, which are similar to sexual reproduction although they do not lead to reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, other genes required for RcGTA function, such as the genes required for RcGTA release through cell lysis are located separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • and penB, which encodes the bacterial cell wall porins. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant
  • We are establishing soil columns and will analyze manure, soil, and water samples for a suite of resistant genes using novel metagenomic tools. (iastate.edu)
  • breakdown
  • Bio-Rad's pGLO plasmid incorporates the arabinose promoter, but the genes involved in the breakdown of arabinose have been replaced with the jellyfish gene encoding GFP. (bio-rad.com)
  • infections
  • In a new study, McIver's laboratory and researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine identified two genes important for invasive group A Streptococcus infections in mice. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The genes, subcutaneous fitness genes A (scfA) and B (scfB), may prove to be promising clinical targets in the fight against these infections, as there are no vaccines against group A Streptococcus or effective treatments for invasive infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • second
  • In a second experiment, they delivered the sodium channel gene to cardiomyocytes -- electrically active heart cells -- in conditions mimicking various diseases or stressful situations, such as a heart attack. (innovations-report.com)