• fetal
  • Although prenatal diagnosis of fetal encephalocele and its associated anomalies has been achieved by using computed tomography (CT) scans, the use of radiation for diagnosis in fetuses is discouraged, particularly in the first 2 trimesters. (medscape.com)
  • Although the exact cause is unknown, encephaloceles are caused by failure of the neural tube to close completely during fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • polydactyly
  • Cephaloceles may be associated with other medical conditions such as maternal diabetes or rubella or with genetic syndromes most notably Meckel-Gruber sydnrome, an autosomal recessive disorder in which dysplastic kidneys and polydactyly are seen in addtion to an encephalocele. (fetalsono.com)
  • defects
  • Research has indicated that teratogens (substances known to cause birth defects), trypan blue (a stain used to color dead tissues or cells blue), and arsenic may damage the developing fetus and cause encephaloceles. (wikipedia.org)
  • This dye may be a cause of certain birth defects, such as encephalocele. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • In 38 instances of atretic encephalocele, 24 patients were 1 year or younger at the time of diagnosis while only 1 patient was aged 38 years ( 21 ). (ispn.guide)
  • excess
  • Encephaloceles have been experimentally induced by administration of diverse teratogens such as sodium arsenate, clofibrate, excess of vitamin A, and Trypan blue, and by x-ray exposure ( 14 , 21 , 28 ). (ispn.guide)