• PMID
  • PMID 26124166 Goris N, De Palma A, Toussaint JF, Musch I, Neyts J, De Clercq K. 2'-C-methylcytidine as a potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID 27234417 doi:10.1093/infdis/jiw226 Zmurko J, Marques RE, Schols D, Verbeken E, Kaptein SJ, Neyts J. The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 7-Deaza-2'-C-Methyladenosine Is a Potent Inhibitor of In Vitro Zika Virus Replication and Delays Disease Progression in a Robust Mouse Infection Model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme
  • The phenomenon of nonviraemic or nonsystemic transmission turns out to be widespread - it has been subsequently observed with many other viruses transmitted by ticks, black flies and mosquitos, including major human pathogens such as West Nile virus, as well as other pathogens, including the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • phylogenetic
  • Additionally, novel phylogenetic conserved structures were identified in the variable part of the 3'-untranslated region, and their sequence and structure similarity when compared with earlier identified structures suggests an enhancing function on virus replication and translation. (diva-portal.org)
  • pathogens
  • His work has revealed the origin, evolution and molecular epidemiology of important human pathogens including Hepatitis C, influenza, HIV and dengue, and enabled more accurate assessments of what types of virus are most likely to emerge in human populations and whether they will evolve human-to-human transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuttall's recent work has focused on discovering the function of tick saliva's many constituents, as well as the mechanisms by which tick-transmitted pathogens use them to enhance their transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • transmit
  • It has been found that the yellow-necked mouse can transmit the virus causing tick-borne encephalitis while being immune to the virus itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cattle tick can transmit an animal disease called Theileriosis to cattle, which can cause considerable blood loss and occasional death of calves, but mainly is important to dairy farmers because of decreased milk production and sheep farmers because of decreased wool quantity and quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • POWV
  • scapularis is an important vector for the Deer Tick Virus, which plays a vital role in maintaining the POWV. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 10% of POWV encephalitis cases are fatal and half the survivors have permanent symptoms that affect their brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arthropods
  • During this research, Nuttall visited sea-bird colonies and became interested in ticks, arthropods that often infest sea birds as well as other vertebrates, and can act as vectors for disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • West Nile
  • Karshi virus has a one-way antigenic relationship with West Nile virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar relationship with West Nile virus has been shown in Usutu virus isolated from Mansonia aurites in Uganda. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this is a reverse type of relationship as compared with that between Karshi and West Nile viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • It cannot be excluded that Karshi virus appeared due to antigenic drift in a genetically isolated population of West Nile virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND), which occurs in less than 1 percent of cases, is when the virus infects the central nervous system resulting in meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis or a poliomyelitis-like syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • West Nile virus encephalitis (WNE) is the most common neuroinvasive manifestation of WNND. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Finally, we were able to detect variations that help in the understanding of virus adaptations to varied environmental temperatures and mammalian hosts through a comparative approach that compares RNA folding dynamics between strains with different mammalian cell passage histories. (diva-portal.org)
  • Symptoms
  • WNE presents with similar symptoms to other viral encephalitis with fever, headaches, and altered mental status. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prominent finding in WNE is muscular weakness (30 to 50 percent of patients with encephalitis), often with lower motor neuron symptoms, flaccid paralysis, and hyporeflexia with no sensory abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, people infected with dengue virus are asymptomatic (80%) or have only mild symptoms such as an uncomplicated fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • bites
  • Besides transmission through tick bites, the virus can also be passed on by ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products such as milk and cheese from infected goats, sheep, or cows. (zoologix.com)
  • Prevention of tick bites is the best precaution. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The Apodemus mice and Microtus voles are known to be more abundantly parasitized with ticks than the Myodes voles (Humair et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unfortunately, there is not enough information about the development of the virus in rodent hosts so many researchers have had to infect mice via needle or by allowing an infected tick to feed on them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation of this virus was tested via electron microscopy and testing on mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • bite
  • The transmission mainly occurs by the bite of an infected tick. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Prevention includes non-specific (tick-bite prevention, tick checks) and specific prophylaxis in the form of a vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • birds
  • The cattle tick lives on mammals and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural infestations have been found on wild animals like bear, deer, foxes, hares, small mammals like rats, ferrets and birds, the latter hosting the ticks larvae. (wikipedia.org)
  • viremia
  • Such an unusual clinical case offers the unique chance of detecting persistent viremia associated to the erythrocyte fraction and shedding of the virus in the urine for more than six weeks. (units.it)
  • Influenza
  • While performing experiments designed to explore whether Thogoto virus, an influenza-like virus, can be transmitted between ticks during mating, Nuttall and her colleagues unexpectedly found that control ticks became infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • antiviral
  • With Norbert Fuchsberger, Valeria Hajnicka and others, Nuttall has shown that tick saliva suppresses the host's antiviral immune responses, including natural killer cell activity and the induction of type I interferon and cytokines involved in inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robust antiviral efficacy upon administration of a nucleoside analog to hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sustained viral response in a hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzee via a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Nuttall found that the bovine viral diarrhoea virus was often present as a contaminant in foetal bovine serum, a commonly used laboratory reagent, a result that was published in Nature in 1977. (wikipedia.org)