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  • clinical
  • Anti-NMDAR encephalitis and HE share similar clinical features so that the differential diagnosis can be difficult if specific antibodies are not tested. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We suggest to re-evaluate the clinical history of all subjects with previous HE diagnosis in order to evaluate the possible diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis and plan the appropriate management of these patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • diagnose encephalitis
  • To diagnose encephalitis, the doctor may take blood samples and perform a spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture), a procedure that involves inserting a very thin needle into the lower back to remove some cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. (kidshealth.org)
  • seizures
  • Adult patients with encephalitis present with acute onset of fever, headache, confusion, and sometimes seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because encephalitis affects the brain, people with severe cases can sometimes develop problems like seizures, difficulties with muscle coordination, and learning disabilities. (kidshealth.org)
  • Crosse
  • Intravenous ribavirin is effective against La Crosse encephalitis virus in the laboratory , and several studies in patients with severe, brain biopsy confirmed, La Crosse encephalitis are ongoing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, this was the largest study of antiviral treatment for La Crosse encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • La Crosse encephalitis was discovered in 1965, after the virus was isolated from stored brain and spinal tissue of a child who died of an unknown infection in La Crosse, Wisconsin in 1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • causative agent
  • Three subtypes of the causative agent are known: the European (Western), the Far Eastern (spring-and-summer encephalitis) and the Siberian. (who.int)
  • Successful treatment in these cases was credited to "awareness of Balamuthia as the causative agent of encephalitis and early initiation of antimicrobial therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • amoebic
  • Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a central nervous system disease caused by certain species of free-living amoebae, especially species of Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris. (wikipedia.org)
  • In more modern references, the term "balamuthia amoebic encephalitis" (BAE) is commonly used when Balamuthia mandrillaris is the cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sappinia amoebic encephalitis (SAE) is the name for amoebic encephalitis caused by species of Sappinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • flavivirus
  • The encephalitis outbreak in the western hemisphere caused by West Nile virus, a related flavivirus, highlights the potential for arboviruses to cause severe problems far from their source enzootic foci. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • However, more recent studies report the presence of autoantibodies against the NMDA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluRepsilon2 (anti-NR2A antibodies) in a subset of patients with Rasmussen's encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1999, following the publication of a case report of a 15-year-old teenager of Indian descent from South Africa who developed subacute memory loss subsequent to herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis, similar cases of non-paraneoplastic LE have been described, as has its association with auto-antibodies and response to steroid. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is certainly overlap between Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis, as well as other conditions associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies such as chronic ophthalmoplegia with anti-GQ1b antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Contraindication to Pertussis immunization should be observed in patients with encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The testing takes several days to perform, and patients with suspected Herpes encephalitis should be treated with acyclovir immediately while waiting for test results. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, each of these criteria fails to fit a substantial proportion of patients, and there is no single test or feature which is diagnostic of Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)