• cholangitis
  • ERCP, biliary enteric anastomosis) Incompetent sphincter of Oddi (e.g. passage of large gallstone, scarring related to chronic pancreatitis) Spontaneous biliary enteric fistula (e.g. gallstone ileus) Infection by gas-forming organisms, (e.g. emphysematous cholangitis) Congenital abnormalities Other rare causes that have been reported include duodenal diverticulum, paraduodenal abscess, operative trauma, and carcinoma of the duodenum, stomach and bile duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • To investigate this, we assessed the effects of advanced age, representative emphysematous and fibrotic injuries, and the combination of advanced age and emphysematous injury and found significant differences both in histologic appearance and in the retention of extracellular matrix (ECM) and other proteins, as assessed by immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry, between the different conditions. (naver.com)