• airway
  • Airflow limitation of COPD is caused by a mixture of small airway disease (obstructive bronchiolitis) and parenchyma destruction (emphysema). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The most frequently identified cause of congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is obstruction of the developing airway, which occurs in 25 percent of cases [ 1 ]. (uptodate.com)