• 1970s
  • In the 1970s, however, a series of studies substantially changed this picture and demonstrated that black carbon as well as the organic soot components continued to be a large component in urban aerosols across the United States and Europe which led to improved controls of these emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • soot
  • The latest diesel emissions certifications in the U.S. include multifunctional devices like diesel soot filters with SCR catalytic coating. (uky.edu)
  • As emission standards continue to tighten in U.S., Europe, and China, research is focusing on HC traps, low temperature NOx adsorbers, N2O mitigation, and gasoline soot filters. (uky.edu)
  • An overview of the mixed metal oxides applied as catalysts for NO x storage/reduction (NSR) and further in the simultaneous removal of NO x and soot particles is provided. (rsc.org)
  • The steady reduction of smoke pollution in the industrial cities of Europe and United States caused a shift in research emphasis away from soot emissions and the almost complete neglect of black carbon as a significant aerosol constituent, at least in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the less-developed regions of the world where there were limited or no controls on soot emissions the air quality continued to degrade as the population increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrocarbon emissions
  • His invention reduced hydrocarbon emissions by as much as 70%, improved fuel efficiency and added up to 40% more power, while addressing the pollution of an engine that often produces large amounts of pollution due to the lubricating oil mixed with the fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalysis
  • The University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research's (CAER) Biofuels and Environmental Catalysis Group has received a $2 million U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant to develop new emissions technology for low-temperature gasoline. (uky.edu)
  • At first, a brief overview on the general features of hydrotalcite-originated mixed metal oxides and their applications in catalysis is provided. (rsc.org)
  • Haren Gandhi spent his working life with Ford, first as a research engineer and, after a number of engineering and scientific positions in the area of automotive catalysis and emissions control, as a Henry Ford Technical Fellow overseeing Ford's worldwide emissions control projects. (matthey.com)
  • He had a keen awareness of the social benefits that result from improved urban air quality delivered by emissions control catalysis, and he wished to extend these benefits around the world and especially to developing countries. (matthey.com)
  • Sivanandi Rajadurai aka Mylaudy S. Rajadurai is a scientist in the field of catalysis, physical chemistry, and emission control, focused on protection of the global environment and is a corporate executive. (wikipedia.org)
  • tailpipe
  • Staff will update the Board on the status on an ongoing research study conducted by ARB to investigate the characteristics of tailpipe emissions from vehicle technologies meeting the latest emission standards. (cal-span.org)
  • Reducing the level of fuel sulfur reduces the level of Sulfur oxide emitted from the tailpipe. (wikipedia.org)
  • automobiles
  • Both agencies, as well as other state agencies, now create and enforce emission regulations for automobiles in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also invented the "Microlith" catalytic reactor for automobiles and fuel processing, and the RCL catalytic combustor for ground-power gas turbine machines. (wikipedia.org)
  • operating temperatures
  • Addressing a second objective of the work, accelerated thermal aging of SCR catalysts may be achieved by elevating temperatures above normal operating temperatures. (sae.org)
  • 2017
  • On 21 April 2017, a US federal judge ordered Volkswagen "to pay a $2.8 billion criminal fine for rigging diesel-powered vehicles to cheat on government emissions tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • titanium
  • Aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, or a mixture of silica and alumina can be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCR catalysts are made from various ceramic materials used as a carrier, such as titanium oxide, and active catalytic components are usually either oxides of base metals (such as vanadium, molybdenum and tungsten), zeolites, or various precious metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • pollution
  • The scandal raised awareness over the higher levels of pollution emitted by all Diesel powered vehicles from a wide range of car makers, which under real world driving conditions exceeded legal emission limits. (wikipedia.org)
  • HRSG
  • Emissions controls may also be located in the HRSG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some low temperature NOx catalysts have recently come to market that allows for the SCR to be placed between the Evaporator and Economizer sections (350 °F - 500 °F (175 °C - 260 °C)). A specialized type of HRSG without boiler drums is the once-through steam generator. (wikipedia.org)
  • heterogeneous
  • Yurii Shaevich Matros (Russian: Юрий Шаевич Матрос) is a scientist in the field of chemical engineering, known for his achievement in the theory and practice of heterogeneous catalytic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results showed a new direction in theory and practice of forced unsteady-state processes in heterogeneous catalytic reactors as a way to significantly increase the efficiency of catalytic processes as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulations
  • At that time, such minimal emission control regulations as existed in the U.S. were promulgated at the municipal or, occasionally, the state level. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • A functionalized nanomaterial having an average particles size of less than 10 nm comprising an iron oxide nanoparticle core and a bis(diarylphosphinomethyl). (patents.com)
  • The coat must retain its surface area and prevent sintering of the catalytic metal particles even at high temperatures (1000 °C). Ceria or ceria-zirconia. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • In order to reduce emissions to a minimum and increase the employee's safety at the facilities, Elkem cooperate with NEO Monitors.At Elkem's plant in Salten, Norway, silicon is produced from quartz in a high temperature process using coal and coke as reducing agents. (environmental-expert.com)
  • High CO emissions are dangerous and potentially deadly in the workplace. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Base metal catalysts, such as the vanadium and tungsten, lack high thermal durability, but are less expensive and operate very well at the temperature ranges most commonly seen in industrial and utility boiler applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to their high catalytic potential, they are utilized as desulfurization agents and in the production of nitrogen gas from nitrogen monoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method is similar to arc discharge in that both use ionized gas to reach the high temperature necessary to vaporize carbon-containing substances and the metal catalysts necessary for the ensuing nanotube growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In reality, the system failed to combine good fuel economy with compliant NOx emissions, and VW chose around 2006 to program the Engine Control Unit to switch from good fuel economy and high NOx emissions to low-emission compliant mode when it detected an emissions test, particularly for the EA 189 engine. (wikipedia.org)
  • zeolites
  • One of the important properties allowing zeolites to act as catalysts is their ability to exchange cations without disturbing the crystalline structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficiency
  • NOx production is increased when an engine runs at its most efficient (i.e. hottest) operating point, so there tends to be a natural tradeoff between efficiency and control of NOx emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • diesel engines
  • The agency had found that Volkswagen had intentionally programmed turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engines to activate their emissions controls only during laboratory emissions testing which caused the vehicles' NOx output to meet US standards during regulatory testing, but emit up to 40 times more NOx in real-world driving. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Through their persistent efforts, this technology is the key emission-control component in all new light-duty vehicles in the United States and throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also used on some wood stoves to control emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rajadurai built a state of the art Research & Development Centre in South India for Sharda Motor Industries Ltd.The capabilities include design, develop and validate exhaust system for emission control & Noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) control. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system allows for higher-precision fuel delivery using electronically controlled fuel injectors and higher injection pressure, theoretically leading to better fuel atomization, better air/fuel ratio control, and by extension, better control of emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • metals
  • The flexible structure of hydrotalcite-like compounds offers the opportunity to introduce various metals into the materials to provide active and selective catalysts for NO x and N 2 O removal. (rsc.org)
  • However, the use of the name is deprecated by IUPAC, as the elements are neither rare in abundance nor "earths" (an obsolete term for water-insoluble strongly basic oxides of electropositive metals incapable of being smelted into metal using late 18th century technology)[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)