• embryonic
  • Each blastomere produced by early embryonic cleavage does not have the capacity to develop into a complete embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haeckel's embryo drawings are primarily intended to express his idiosyncratic theory of embryonic development, the Biogenetic Law, which in turn assumes (but is not crucial to) the evolutionary concept of common descent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abortion rights advocates, advocates of embryonic stem cell research, and members of the fertility industry object to referring to the transfer as an "adoption" because they feel it gives an embryo the same status as a child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, only fossils representing very early stages in embryonic development have been preserved - no embryos have been interpreted as having undergone a large number cleavage stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fossilized embryos of the 635- to 551-million year old Doushantuo Formation of southern China exhibit occasional asynchronous cell division, common in modern embryos, implying that sophisticated mechanisms for differential cell division timing and embryonic cell lineage differentiation evolved before 551 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • An alternative interpretation of the embryos appears to discount an animal - or indeed embryonic - interpretation altogether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division without enlargement appears to continue beyond what it would in embryos, and without other embryonic traits becoming apparent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most Olivooides fossils are in a late embryonic stage, with a looped embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial embryo culture media basically contain glucose, pyruvate, and energy-providing components, but the addition of amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, and cholesterol improve the performance of embryonic growth and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • oocyte
  • Oocyte age, survival proportion, and number of transferred embryos are predictors of pregnancy outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A US study concluded that donating an embryo is approximately twice as cost-effective as oocyte donation in terms of cost per live birth, with a cost of $22,000 per live delivery compared to $41,000 for oocyte donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression profiling of cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte and early embryo, or on granulosa cells, provides an alternative that does not involve sampling from the embryo itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Profiling of cumulus cells can give valuable information regarding the efficiency of an ovarian hyperstimulation protocol, and may indirectly predict oocyte aneuploidy, embryo development and pregnancy outcomes, without having to perform any invasive procedure directly in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • deuterostome
  • It is characteristic of deuterostomes - when the original cell in a deuterostome embryo divides, the two resulting cells can be separated, and each one can individually develop into a whole organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Because of increased female embryo mortality due to epigenetic modifications induced by extended culture, blastocyst transfer leads to more male births (56.1% male) versus 2 or 3 day transfer (a normal sex ratio of 51.5% male). (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial
  • Culture of embryos can either be performed in an artificial culture medium or in an autologous endometrial coculture (on top of a layer of cells from the woman's own uterine lining). (wikipedia.org)
  • With artificial culture medium, there can either be the same culture medium throughout the period, or a sequential system can be used, in which the embryo is sequentially placed in different media. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryos would need to develop in such artificial uteri until a large enough population existed to procreate by natural biological means. (wikipedia.org)
  • It deals with the mental and physical consequences of growing a human embryo in an artificial uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • In general, in organisms that reproduce sexually, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell resulting from the fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants and animals, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell that results when an egg and sperm fuse during fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technologically more challenging but more flexible scenario calls for just carrying the biological means to create embryos, that is various samples of donated sperm and egg cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thereafter the first embryos could be unfrozen (or created using biosequenced or natural sperm and egg cells as outlined above). (wikipedia.org)
  • fertility
  • According to a survey by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 54% of fertility patients want to preserve their remaining embryos for future use. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancy
  • Embryo quality is the ability of an embryo to perform successfully in terms of conferring a high pregnancy rate and/or resulting in a healthy person. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, embryo profiling for prediction of pregnancy rates focuses mainly on visual profiles and short-term biomarkers including expression of RNA and proteins, preferably in the surroundings of embryos to avoid any damage to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principle behind it is that, since it is known that numerical chromosomal abnormalities explain most of the cases of pregnancy loss, and a large proportion of the human embryos are aneuploid, the selective replacement of euploid embryos should increase the chances of a successful IVF treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • systematic
  • During the period of 1890 to 1904, systems for embryo rescue became systematic by applying nutrient solutions that contained salts and sugars and applying aseptic technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • uterus
  • A new method in development uses the uterus as an incubator and the naturally occurring intrauterine fluids as culture medium by encapsulating the embryos in a permeable intrauterine vessel. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is limited evidence that supports deposition of embryos in the midportion of the uterus. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • In regards to research using human embryos, the ethics and legalities of this application continue to be debated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purified Duck embryo vaccine (PDEV) was the first vaccine developed for human use in treating pre- and postexposure to the rabies virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • The most widely used embryo rescue procedure is referred to as embryo culture, and involves excising plant embryos and placing them onto media culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others use the terms synonymously because regardless of whether the arrangement is open or anonymous, the donation of embryos and a clinical assisted reproduction procedure is involved, and the recipient couple is preparing to raise a child not genetically related to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryo transfer procedure starts by placing a speculum in the vagina to visualize the cervix, which is cleansed with saline solution or culture media. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • An embryo is called a fetus at a more advanced stage of development and up until birth or hatching. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure and development of the rest of the embryo varies by group of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • It results in the developmental fate of the cells being set early in the embryo development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Karl von Baer and Wilhelm His, did not believe that living embryos reproduce the evolutionary process and produced embryo drawings of their own which emphasized the differences in early embryological development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haeckel proposes that all classes of vertebrates pass through an evolutionarily conserved "phylotypic" stage of development, a period of reduced phenotypic diversity among higher embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo rescue is one of the earliest and successful forms of in-vitro culture techniques that is used to assist in the development of plant embryos that might not survive to become viable plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo rescue plays an important role in modern plant breeding, allowing the development of many interspecific and intergeneric food and ornamental plant crop hybrids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding of incompatible interspecific and intergeneric species Overcoming seed dormancy Determination of seed viability Recovery of maternal haploids that develop as a result of chromosome elimination following interspecific hybridization Used in studies on the physiology of seed germination and development Depending on the organ cultured, it may be referred to as either embryo, ovule, or ovary culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, due to difficulties involved with the rearing of young embryos compared to those that have reached the autotrophic phase of development, embryos are normally allowed to develop in vivo as long as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will generally depend on the stage of development of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • earliest
  • Markuelia fossils from Siberia, and Olivoodes from China are examples of embryos from the earliest Cambrian (541-485.4 million years ago). (wikipedia.org)
  • abortion
  • Interspecific incompatibility in plants can occur for many reasons, but most often embryo abortion occurs In plant breeding, wide hybridization crosses can result in small shrunken seeds which indicate that fertilization has occurred, however the seed fails to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • It becomes necessary to excise the entire small embryo to prevent early embryo abortion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optimal time especially for the rescue of embryos involving incompatible crosses would be just prior to embryo abortion. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • In animals, the zygote divides repeatedly to form a ball of cells, which then forms a set of tissue layers that migrate and fold to form an early embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Late 20th and early 21st century critic Stephen Jay Gould have objected to the continued use of Haeckel's embryo drawings in textbooks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The series of twenty-four embryos from the early editions of Haeckel's Anthropogenie remain the most famous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spare
  • He reports that "Twenty-five per cent of patients want to donate their [spare] embryos - not as many as I'd like. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • Embryo donation can be handled on an anonymous basis (donor and recipient parties are not known to each other), or on an open basis (parties' identities are shared and the families agree to a relationship). (wikipedia.org)
  • A careful reading of the 1983 clinical report often cited as the first instance of embryo donation reveals that the donated embryo was actually created for the recipient at the same time that four embryos were made for the donor couple's own use. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • in addition, There was a remarkable discovery of fossilized eggs and embryos which are believed to be the oldest metazoan fossils known in the fossil record. (wikipedia.org)
  • stage
  • Timing mainly refers to the maturation stage of the embryo before excision. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2014, time-lapse microscopy for embryo quality assessment is emerging from the experimental stage to something with enough evidence for broader clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enburio
  • World Embryo (Japanese: ワールドエンブリオ, Hepburn: Wārudo Enburio) is a Japanese manga series by Daisuke Moriyama. (wikipedia.org)
  • XBlaze Code: Embryo (エクスブレイズ コード:エンブリオ, EkusuBureizu Kōdo: Enburio) is a prequel visual novel of the fighting game series BlazBlue by Arc System Works. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The position and arrangement of the germ layers are highly species-specific, however, depending on the type of embryo produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Images of embryos provide a means of comparing embryos of different ages, and species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The temperature and light requirement is generally species specific and thus its usually regulated to be the within the same temperature requirement as that of its parent with embryos of cool-season crops requiring lower temperatures than those of warm-season crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • time
  • A study in France between 1999 and 2011 came to the result that embryo freezing before administration of gonadotoxic chemotherapy agents to females caused a delay of treatment in 34% of cases, and a live birth in 27% of surviving cases who wanted to become pregnant, with the follow-up time varying between 1 and 13 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo quality is mainly evaluated by microscopy at certain time points using a morphological scoring system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Time-lapse microscopy is an expansion of microscopy wherein the morphology of embryos is studied over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies using the EmbryoScope(tm) time-lapse incubator have used several indicators for embryo quality, such as direct cleavage from 1 to 3 cells, as well as the initiation of compaction and start of blastulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a natural cycle the embryo transfer takes place in the luteal phase at a time where the lining is appropriately undeveloped in relation to the status of the present Luteinizing Hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo is a musical collective from Munich which has been active since 1969, although its story started in the mid-1950s in Hof where Christian Burchard and Dieter Serfas met for the first time at the age of 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • In current biology, fundamental research in developmental biology and evolutionary developmental biology is no longer driven by morphological comparisons between embryos, but more by molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular analysis can be performed by taking one of the cells from an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Embryos are used in various fields of research and in techniques of assisted reproductive technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon after this, scientists began placing the embryos in various nutrient media. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo profiling is the estimation of embryo quality by qualification and/or quantification of various parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo space colonization concepts involve various concepts of delivering the embryos from Earth to an extrasolar planet around another star system. (wikipedia.org)
  • another
  • The presence of soluble HLA-G might be considered as another parameter if a choice has to be made between embryos of equal visible quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another level of opportunity can be achieved by having the evaluation of the embryo profile tailored to the maternal status in regard to, for example health or immune status, potentially further detailed by similar profiling of the maternal genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is a practice in which animal germplasms, such as embryos are collected and stored at low temperatures with the intent of conserving the genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • available
  • If the donors are not available to be screened, the embryos must be given a label that indicates that the required screening has not been done, and the recipients must agree to accept the associated risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods to permit dynamic embryo culture with fluid flow and embryo movement are also available. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • In these plants, the embryo begins its existence attached to the inside of the archegonium on a parental gametophyte from which the egg cell was generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, microRNA (miRNA) and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can be sampled from the vicinity of embryos, functioning as transcriptome-level-markers of embryo quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major drawback of genomic profiling for embryo quality is that the results generally rely on the assessment of a single cell, PGP has inherent limitations as the tested cell may not be representative of the embryo because of mosaicism. (wikipedia.org)
  • refer
  • Embryo splitting may refer to: when spontaneous, the natural way in which identical twins are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • this "foot" consists of a bulbous mass of cells at the base of the embryo which may receive nutrition from its parent gametophyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • These conditions can keep the embryos intact long enough for bacteria to mineralise the cells and permit their preservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells of the embryo break down within hours of their death, under the effect of its own enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria invade the decaying embryo before its cells can collapse, and biofilms take on and preserve the three-dimensional structure of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, embryos composed of hundreds to more than ~1000 cells still show no evidence of blastocoel formation or the organization of blastomeres into epithelia - epithelialization should be underway in modern embryos with >100 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies
  • While in general, two main types of basal media are the most commonly used for embryo rescue studies, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taphonomic studies indicate that embryos are preserved for longest in reducing, anoxic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • However, phosphatisation was very rapid in the Doushantuo, so it is possible that faster preservation allowed embryos in different regimes to be preserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryo developed from jazzy Krautrock to a world music band, which is able to merge different styles and trends. (wikipedia.org)
  • develop
  • For instance, young embryos would require a complex medium with high sucrose concentrations, while more mature embryos can usually develop on a simple medium with low levels of sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, two-pronuclear zygotes (2PN) transitioning through 1PN or 3PN states tend to develop into poorer-quality embryos than those that constantly remain 2PN. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfer
  • Lawyers who assist couples who are trying to acquire an embryo state the term "embryo adoption" is a misnomer because the transfer of an embryo is handled as property transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A soft transfer catheter is loaded with the embryos and handed to the clinician after confirmation of the patient's identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • The first successful in vitro embryo culture was performed by Hanning in 1904, he however described problems with precocious embryos that resulted in small, weak, and often inviable plantlets. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is technically difficult to isolate the tiny intact embryos, so often ovaries with young embryos, or entire fertilized ovules will be used. (wikipedia.org)