• atom
  • As the only neutral atom for which the Schrödinger equation can be solved analytically, study of the energetics and bonding of the hydrogen atom has played a key role in the development of quantum mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom is −13.6 eV, which is equivalent to an ultraviolet photon of roughly 91 nm wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy levels of hydrogen can be calculated fairly accurately using the Bohr model of the atom, which conceptualizes the electron as "orbiting" the proton in analogy to the Earth's orbit of the Sun. However, the atomic electron and proton are held together by electromagnetic force, while planets and celestial objects are held by gravity. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more accurate description of the hydrogen atom comes from a purely quantum mechanical treatment that uses the Schrödinger equation, Dirac equation or even the Feynman path integral formulation to calculate the probability density of the electron around the proton. (wikipedia.org)
  • An atom has an electron cloud consisting of negatively charged electrons surrounding a dense nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the oxidative half-reaction, the reduced cofactor reacts with molecular oxygen to form a C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate, which transfers an oxygen atom to ornithine. (jove.com)
  • ions
  • Gaseous CO2 emissions from processes such as hydrocarbon reforming are transformed into carbonate or bicarbonate ions and hydrogen. (google.es)
  • Gaseous CO 2 emissions from processes such as hydrocarbon reforming are transformed into carbonate or bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions by the enzymatic system in order to prevent their contribution to the greenhouse effect. (google.es)
  • The hydrogen ions resulting from the enzymatic process are recovered and combined in order to supply the hydrogen fuel cell. (google.es)
  • 3. A process as claimed in claim 2 , wherein said hydration of step b) is catalysed by means of an enzyme capable of catalysing the hydration of dissolved CO 2 into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. (google.es)
  • 10. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the combining step c) comprises the step of adding to the solution of bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions obtained in step b) an electron donor. (google.es)
  • An inductively coupled plasma is a plasma that is energized (ionized) by inductively heating the gas with an electromagnetic coil, and contains a sufficient concentration of ions and electrons to make the gas electrically conductive. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these plasmas the positive ions are almost all singly charged and there are few negative ions, so there are nearly equal amounts of ions and electrons in each unit volume of plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • ammonium
  • The hydrogen autoignition temperature, the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air, is 500 °C (932 °F). Pure hydrogen-oxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and with high oxygen mix are nearly invisible to the naked eye, as illustrated by the faint plume of the Space Shuttle Main Engine, compared to the highly visible plume of a Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, which uses an ammonium perchlorate composite. (wikipedia.org)
  • As salts or esters of hydrogen cyanide (HCN, or hydrocyanic acid), cyanides are formed by replacing the hydrogen of hydrogen cyanide with a metal, such as sodium or potassium , or by replacing the hydrogen with a radical (such as ammonium). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • oxide
  • The simplest systematic name of water is hydrogen oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • This invention is concerned with the use of porous inorganic membranes, particularly anodic aluminium oxide membranes as catalyst supports Porous alumina ceramics are very well known and widely used as catalyst supports. (google.com)
  • As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative instability of the carbon-oxygen bonds in the molecule is revealed by the comparison in the table of the energy required to break two C-O bonds in the ethylene oxide or one C-O bond in ethanol and dimethyl ether: This instability correlates with its high reactivity, explaining the ease of its ring-opening reactions (see Chemical properties). (wikipedia.org)
  • gases
  • An alkali anion exchange membrane (AAEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct anions while being impermeable to gases such as oxygen or hydrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • IUPAC
  • The accepted IUPAC name of water is oxidane or simply water,or its equivalent in different languages, although there are other systematic names which can be used to describe the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • bonds
  • The molecules of water are constantly moving in relation to each other, and the hydrogen bonds are continually breaking and reforming at timescales faster than 200 femtoseconds (2×10−13 seconds). (wikipedia.org)
  • electrically
  • citation needed] The plasmas used in spectrochemical analysis are essentially electrically neutral, with each positive charge on an ion balanced by a free electron. (wikipedia.org)
  • cofactor
  • Such a role seems to be shared by Lys614 through donation of a proton to the bridging oxygen of the cofactor, thereby acting as a catalytic acid. (jove.com)
  • oxides
  • Functionalized metal oxides are widely used for vapor sensing applications [ 1 - 34 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite the multiple attractive features of metal oxides as gas-sensitive materials, the detection of chemicals with a high-temperature chemiresistor can be challenging and presents a number of difficulties, such as: substantial thermal noise, high energy consumption and large size from the incorporation of additional heating elements, temperature controller, and signal processing elements. (mdpi.com)
  • In order to expand the scope of its usage, graphene hybrids which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with metals/metal oxides and other nanostructured materials have been synthesized and are a widely emerging field of research. (frontiersin.org)
  • molecular
  • Play media Hydrogen gas (dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen) is highly flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • We then use double mixing settings where A f SidA is first anaerobically reduced by NADPH for a designated period of time in an aging loop, and then reacted with molecular oxygen in the observation cell ( Figure 1 ). (jove.com)
  • fraction
  • Interest in storing power from these intermittent sources grows as the renewable energy industry begins to generate a larger fraction of overall energy consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • For example, bitter almonds (as opposed to sweet almonds) can yield dangerous amounts of prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide) when eaten raw, but the toxicity can be removed by heating. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • energy
  • The C−S bond dissociation energy for thiomethane is 89 kcal/mol (370 kJ/mol) compared to methane's 100 kcal/mol (420 kJ/mol) and when hydrogen is replaced by a methyl group the energy decreases to 73 kcal/mol (305 kJ/mol). (wikipedia.org)
  • We prepared three different compositions of Cu x Te target material and studied the properties of sputtered films using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Hall measurements. (ohiolink.edu)
  • In recent years, first-generation biofuels typically derived from food crops have been widely utilized as a renewable source of energy. (frontiersin.org)
  • The energy isn't stored directly, but the work-product of consuming energy (pumping away heat) is stored, having the equivalent effect on daytime consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • 7 January Scientists report that, about 800 million years ago, a minor genetic change in a single molecule, called GK-PID, may have allowed organisms to go from a single cell organism to one of many cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Most hydrogen is used near the site of its production, the two largest uses being fossil fuel processing (e.g., hydrocracking) and ammonia production, mostly for the fertilizer market. (wikipedia.org)
  • The object of the invention is the coupling of a hydrogen fuel cell to an enzymatic process for the production of electricity and the transformation and sequestration of CO2. (google.es)
  • 4,5 Thus in an ideal scenario, there should be a balance between CO 2 production and consumption, but unfortunately this has been disrupted. (rsc.org)
  • water
  • Finally, water, a by-product of the oxidizing reaction of the hydrogen fuel cell, is recovered and recycled back into the aqueous enzymatic system. (google.es)
  • 7. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein the hydrogen fuel cell also generates, in step d), water that is recycled and used in the catalysing step b). (google.es)
  • Other systematic names for water include hydroxic acid, hydroxylic acid, and hydrogen hydroxide, using acid and base names. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike other analogous hydrides of the oxygen family, water is primarily a liquid under standard conditions due to hydrogen bonding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water has a very high specific heat capacity of 4.1814 J/(g·K) at 25 °C - the second highest among all the heteroatomic species (after ammonia), as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65 kJ/mol or 2257 kJ/kg at the normal boiling point), both of which are a result of the extensive hydrogen bonding between its molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfer
  • For example, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), whose properties emerge in the axial direction, can be functionalized onto the surface of graphene, combining the properties of the two carbon allotropes in all directions while allowing for an increased active surface area and faster electron transfer kinetics. (frontiersin.org)
  • metal
  • The various cyanides are salts or esters of HCN (hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid), whereby the hydrogen is replaced with a metal or radical, yielding such as potassium cyanide (KCN), calcium cyanide (CA(CN) 2 ), or ethyl cyanide (CH 3 CH 2 CN). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • 11. A process as claimed in claim 10 , wherein the electron donor is a metal. (google.es)
  • free
  • Free-living diazotrophs are widely distributed in the environment, yet our knowledge about their identity and ecophysiology is still limited. (microbial-ecology.net)
  • A flow of argon gas (usually 13 to 18 liters per minute) is introduced between the two outermost tubes of the torch and an electric spark is applied for a short time to introduce free electrons into the gas stream. (wikipedia.org)