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  • salts
  • Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. (osti.gov)
  • Electrolytes can be acids, bases or salts such as ionized calcium and the minerals listed above found in blood serum, the liquid of the blood that doesn't contain cells. (reference.com)
  • constancy of these salts (electrolytes) inside and outside of cells is closely guarded. (britannica.com)
  • Molten salts can also be electrolytes as, for example, when sodium chloride is molten, the liquid conducts electricity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, ionic liquids, which are molten salts with melting points below 100 °C, are a type of highly conductive non-aqueous electrolytes and thus have found more and more applications in fuel cells and batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong acids, strong bases and soluble ionic salts that are not weak acids or weak bases are strong electrolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cation
  • Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. (osti.gov)
  • electrochemical
  • Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. (osti.gov)
  • Later in 1891, Johann Wilhelm Hittorf reported on the ion transport numbers in electrochemical cells, and in the early 20th century those numbers were determined for solid electrolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1889 he realized the similarity between electrochemical and chemical equilibria, and formulated his famous equation that correctly predicted the output voltage of various electrochemical cells based on liquid electrolytes from the thermodynamic properties of their components. (wikipedia.org)
  • anode
  • The PEM electrolyzer utilizes a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) to conduct protons from the anode to the cathode while insulating the electrodes electrically. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • Drinking electrolytes maintains the body's ability to process carbohydrates such as glucose more effectively, increasing energy and endurance. (reference.com)
  • polymer
  • The polymer electrolyte allows the PEM electrolyzer to operate with a very thin membrane (~100-200μm) while still allowing high pressures, resulting in low ohmic losses, primarily caused by the conduction of protons across the membrane (0.1 S/cm) and a compressed hydrogen output. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymer electrolyte membrane, due to its solid structure, exhibits a low gas crossover rate resulting in very high product gas purity. (wikipedia.org)
  • DSC technology can best be described as 'artificial photosynthesis' using an electrolyte, a layer of titania (a pigment used in white paints and tooth paste) and ruthenium dye deposited on glass, metal or polymer substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • this helped explain ionic and electronic transport in ionic crystals, ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nanocomposites. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Another example where electrolyte drinks are important is when infants/children have chronic vomiting or diarrhea, perhaps due to intestinal flu viruses . (howstuffworks.com)
  • urinary
  • CLED agar (cystine lactose electrolyte deficient medium) is a valuable non-inhibitory growth medium used in the isolation and differentiation of urinary organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Thus if the concentration of an electrolyte, say Na+ is determined to be 140 mmol/L, it is the concentration in total plasma volume, not in plasma water volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • But, in patients with severe endogenous or exogenous hypertriglyceridemia and in patients with high plasma protein concentration (usually due to paraproteinemia), water portion of plasma is replaced with either lipid or protein causing falsely low electrolyte value (pseudohyponatremia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, in patients with low plasma protein concentration (a finding often seen in critical care), the water content of plasma is higher than normal, resulting in the reciprocal artifact, a falsely high electrolyte value (pseudohypernatremia). (wikipedia.org)
  • CHEMISTRY
  • It was from here that he and Kenneth Pitzer published the article in The Journal of Physical Chemistry entitled "Thermodynamics of electrolytes 12. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. (osti.gov)
  • drinks
  • A running or triathlon store will sell electrolyte tablets that you can use instead of gatorade or any of the high-calorie drinks. (fitday.com)
  • High
  • Electrolyte tests are commonly ordered at regular intervals to monitor treatment of certain conditions, including high blood pressure ( hypertension ), heart failure , lung diseases , and liver and kidney disease . (labtestsonline.org)
  • High or low electrolyte levels can be caused by several conditions and diseases. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Our electrolyte system incorporates a unique blend of amino acids which is designed for rapid delivery and increased absorption, so when 'hydrates my body quickly' scored so high on the surveys it made total sense. (globenewswire.com)
  • species
  • A supporting electrolyte, in electrochemistry, according to an IUPAC definition, is an electrolyte containing chemical species that are not electroactive (within the range of potentials used) and which has an ionic strength and conductivity much larger than those due to the electroactive species added to the electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being electrolyte deficient, it prevents the swarming of Proteus species. (wikipedia.org)
  • balance
  • Knowing which electrolytes are out of balance can help a health practitioner determine the underlying cause and make decisions about treatment to restore proper balance. (labtestsonline.org)
  • example
  • An Electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) sensor is a sensor that is made of these three components: an electrolyte with the chemical that should be measured an insulator that allows field-effect interaction, without leak currents between the two other components a semiconductor to register the chemical changes The EIS sensor can be used in combination with other structures, for example to construct a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • solid
  • This sealed battery is kept at approximately 300 degrees Celsius and is operated under the condition that the active materials at both electrodes are liquid and its electrolyte is solid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solid-state ionic devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells, can be much more reliable and long-lasting, especially under harsh conditions, than comparable devices with fluid electrolytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of solid-state ionics was first developed in Europe, starting with the work of Michael Faraday on solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 in 1834. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, solid-state ionics focused on the synthesis and characterization of novel solid electrolytes and their applications in solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Electrolytes are important because they are what your cells (especially nerve, heart, muscle) use to maintain voltages across their cell membranes and to carry electrical impulses (nerve impulses, muscle contractions) across themselves and to other cells. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In particular, the maintenance of precise osmotic gradients of electrolytes is important. (wikipedia.org)