• electrolyte
  • 18. A method of forming a modified electrode comprising the step of depositing by in situ polymerization a film of electrolyte permeable, charge-mediating conductive polymer containing quaternized bipyridyl groups and cross-links between unsaturated groups on different polymer chains on the surface of a conductive substrate. (google.com)
  • The oxidizing gas is adsorbed in the pores of the oxygen electrode and de-adsorbed therefrom migrating as ions into the electrolyte leaving behind two positive charges. (google.com.au)
  • The fuel gas is similarly adsorbed and de-adsorbed from the pores of the fuel electrode migrating into the electrolyte as H+ ions, in the case of hydrogen fuel, leaving behind a negative charge. (google.com.au)
  • One particular aim of modern research is the development of an eliicient electrochemically stable electrode Awhich is not detrimentally attacked, even at high temperatures, by the electrolyte of the cell. (google.com.au)
  • The electrode in one preferred embodiment comprises a porous cermet consisting of two layers in intimate contact with each other, the layer fronting the electrolyte consisting of zinc oxide bonded with metallic silver and the layer fronting the fuel consisting of alumina or aluminum silicate impregnated with an activating metal. (google.com.au)
  • An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air). (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrode potential is measured in volts (V). Electrode potential appears at the interface between an electrode and electrolyte due to the transfer of charged species across the interface, specific adsorption of ions at the interface, and specific adsorption/orientation of polar molecules, including those of the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In case of non-zero net current on the electrode, it is essential to minimize the ohmic IR-drop in the electrolyte, e.g., by positioning the reference electrode near the surface of the working electrode (e.g., see Luggin capillary), or by using a supporting electrolyte of sufficiently high conductivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ideally polarizable electrode (also ideal polarizable electrode or ideally polarized electrode), in electrochemistry, is an electrode characterized by an absence of net current between the two sides of the electrical double layer, i.e., no faradic current between the electrode surface and the electrolyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • potentials
  • Using aqueous electrodes introduces undefined, variable, and unmeasurable junction potentials to the cell in the form of a liquid-liquid junction as well as different ionic composition between the reference compartment and the rest of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best argument against using aqueous reference electrodes with nonaqueous systems, as mentioned earlier, is that potentials measured in different solvents are not directly comparable. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between the two electrode potentials equals the cell potential: Ecell = Ecathode − Eanode. (wikipedia.org)
  • reaction
  • 5. An electrode according to claim 4 in which the reaction is the photolysis of water and the catalyst promotes the generation of hydrogen gas. (google.com)
  • The high stability of the electrode potential is usually reached by employing a redox system with constant (buffered or saturated) concentrations of each participant of the redox reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point, the reaction is diffusion-limited and depends only on the permeability properties of the membrane (which is ideally well characterized, the electrode being calibrated against known standard solutions) and by the oxygen gas concentration, which is the measured quantity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrode half-reaction is: Hydroquinone ↔ Quinone + 2H+ +2e− Because the electrode half-reaction involves hydrogen ions, the electrode potential depends on the activity of hydrogen ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, according to the convention (1), the value of EMF is bivariant (with two variants), i.e., reversing the electrode reaction and reversing the corresponding cell diagram will cause the change of sign of ΔG and E, even though the polarity of the cell measured with a direct-current voltmeter does not necessarily reverse. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also improves reaction kinetics Other metals can be used for building electrodes with a similar function such as the palladium-hydrogen electrode. (wikipedia.org)
  • voltage
  • The electrodes are connected to a medium voltage (1-35 kV) AC source. (wikipedia.org)
  • An electrode line is used in some high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) power transmission systems which use the ground or sea as the return path for electric current. (wikipedia.org)
  • The operating voltage of the electrode line usually is in the range of approx. (wikipedia.org)
  • An electrode array is a configuration of electrodes used for measuring either an electric current or voltage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some electrode arrays can operate in a bidirectional fashion, in that they can also be used to provide a stimulating pattern of electric current or voltage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increasing the voltage applied (between the Pt electrode and a second Ag electrode) will increase the rate of electrocatalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrolysis
  • Commonly the electrolysis is carried out in a tank which is divided into unit cells by thin, closely spaced, parallel, vertical transversely disposed electrode sheets. (google.com)
  • conductive
  • The sensor includes several sensor layers that include conductive layers and includes a proximal segment defining conductive contacts adapted for electrical connection to a suitable monitor, and a distal segment with sensor electrodes for transcutaneous placement. (google.com)
  • The 2nd most conductive electrode on the market. (medline.com)
  • This creates an ionically conductive path to the working electrode of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • Most electrodes work over a limited range of conditions, such as pH or temperature, outside of this range the electrodes behavior becomes unpredictable. (wikipedia.org)
  • To see the interfering effect of Na+ to a pH-electrode: E = E 0 + R T F ln ⁡ ( a H + + k H + , Na + a Na + ) {\displaystyle E=E^{0}+{\frac {RT}{F}}\ln \left(a_{{\text{H}}^{+}}+k_{{\text{H}}^{+},{\text{Na}}^{+}}a_{{\text{Na}}^{+}}\right)} Before the 1950s, there was no explanation for some important aspects of the behavior of glass electrodes (GE) and the factual reversibility of this behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperature
  • According to the instant invention, a fuel cell is constructed for high temperature operations wherein at least ice one electrode is composed of a mixture of zinc oxide and metallic silver and where the gas interface of the electrode is coated with an aluminum silicate or alumina activated with an activating metal such as palladium, platinum, rhodium or gold. (google.com.au)
  • Unlike fossil fuel or conventional electric boiler, no component of electrode boiler is at high temperature except the water itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • corrosion
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION A number of electrolytic chemical manufacturing processes are known in which an important commercial factor is the corrosion of the electrodes by anolyte. (google.com)
  • The electrode is usually located several tens of kilometres from the converter station in order to avoid possible problems or corrosion in the converter station grounding system. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • There are also specialized ion sensitive glass electrodes used for determination of concentration of lithium, sodium, ammonium, and other ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • What replaced it was a theoretical electrode/solution interface, where the concentration of H+ was 1 M, but the H+ ions were assumed to have no interaction with other ions (a condition not physically attainable at those concentrations). (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • However, the electrodes have to be coated with platinum to catalyse the fuel cell's reactions, and a way of doing that using established processes has proved elusive - until now. (newscientist.com)
  • The value of the electrode potential under non-equilibrium depends on the nature and composition of the contacting phases, and on the kinetics of electrode reactions at the interface (see Butler-Volmer equation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its absolute electrode potential is estimated to be 4.44 ± 0.02 V at 25 °C, but to form a basis for comparison with all other electrode reactions, hydrogen's standard electrode potential (E0) is declared to be zero volts at all temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • grid
  • Integra Epilepsy grid electrodes are thin and flexible for easier placement and to conform to the curvature of the cortical surface. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In a first step toward helping severely paralyzed people communicate more easily, Utah researchers have shown that it is possible to translate recorded brain waves into words, using a grid of electrodes placed directly on the brain. (latimes.com)
  • centers
  • But researchers have been reluctant to implant electrodes in the speech centers for fear of causing irreversible damage. (latimes.com)
  • Some researchers have been attempting to "read" speech centers in the brain using electrodes placed on the scalp. (latimes.com)
  • Because of the ion-exchange nature of the glass membrane, it is possible for some other ions to concurrently interact with ion-exchange centers of the glass and to distort the linear dependence of the measured electrode potential on pH or other electrode function. (wikipedia.org)
  • measurement
  • The most common application of ion-selective glass electrodes is for the measurement of pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common arrays include: Schlumberger (Wenner) Wenner alpha Wenner beta Wenner gamma Pole-pole Dipole-dipole Pole-dipole Equatorial dipole-dipole Resistivity measurement of bulk materials is a frequent application of electrode arrays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injecting the current through electrodes separate from those being used for measurement of potential has the advantage of eliminating any inaccuracies caused by the injecting circuit resistance, particularly the contact resistance between the probe and the surface, which can be high. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition cross-linking. (google.com)
  • The electrodes, which are applied to the skin, deliver intermittent simulation to surface nerves to block the transmission of pain signals. (prweb.com)
  • It is another object of the invention to provide an electrode which is economical to produce containing a highly active surface. (google.com.au)
  • This forms an insoluble layer of AgCl on the surface of the electrode and gives you an Ag/AgCl wire. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • Glass electrodes have been utilized in a wide range of applications - from pure research, control of industrial processes, to analyze foods, cosmetics and comparison of indicators of the environment and environmental regulations: a microelectrode measurements of membrane electrical potential of a biological cell, analysis of soil acidity, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between the potential of the two electrodes depends (primarily) on the activity of H+ in the solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrode potential is the electric potential on an electrode component. (wikipedia.org)
  • To avoid possible ambiguities, the electrode potential thus defined can also be referred to as Gibbs-Stockholm electrode potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually
  • As neural signals are collected by the electrodes, they travel up the gold wires and through the cranium, where they are passed on to the bioamplifiers (usually implemented by differential amplifiers). (wikipedia.org)
  • A plate, usually called anode in Britain, is a type of electrode that forms part of a vacuum tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • TENS
  • OrthoCo treats its customers to free shipping for case quantities of OrthoTrode TENS Electrodes, proving the company's commitment to their customers. (prweb.com)
  • With customer service in the company's thrust, it has started to offer free shipping for customers who order case quantities of OrthoTrode TENS electrodes . (prweb.com)
  • How important are TENS Electrodes? (prweb.com)
  • OrthoCo's is proud of its OrthoTrode line of reusable TENS Electrodes. (prweb.com)
  • Some patients actually need a number of TENS electrodes pads when using multi-channel TENS units. (prweb.com)
  • While OrthoCo ships internationally, the special shipping offer for TENS electrode cases only applies to ground shipping to domestic U.S. addresses. (prweb.com)
  • This offer will surely help patients, clinics, and healthcare professionals save on shipping costs, while still ensuring that they get the best and most effective results from OrthoTrode TENS electrodes. (prweb.com)
  • vivo
  • We demonstrated the high design variability in the packaging of our electrode device, and in vivo neuronal recordings were performed by simply placing the device on a mouse's brain. (medindia.net)