• Electromagnetic Waves
  • It is likely that the first intentional transmission of a signal by means of electromagnetic waves was performed in an experiment by David Edward Hughes around 1880, although this was considered to be induction at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maxwell's theory showing that light and Hertzian electromagnetic waves were the same phenomenon at different wavelengths led "Maxwellian" scientist such as John Perry, Frederick Thomas Trouton and Alexander Trotter to assume they would be analogous to optical signaling and the Serbian American engineer Nikola Tesla to consider them relatively useless for communication since "light" could not transmit further than line of sight. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1886-88 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz conducted a series of experiments that proved the existence of Maxwell's electromagnetic waves, using a frequency in what would later be called the radio spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • A problem in localizing sources is that a unique relationship may not exist between the recorded EEG or MEG signals and the neural source(s). (google.com)
  • A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain-machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device. (wikipedia.org)
  • A neural prosthetic device for an auditory cortex of a patient has a support arranged in the auditory cortex with a plurality of electrical contacts and is connected to a speech processor for receiving and processing audio information and outputting processed electrical signals. (google.co.uk)
  • Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) or microelectrode arrays are devices that contain multiple plates or shanks through which neural signals are obtained or delivered, essentially serving as neural interfaces that connect neurons to electronic circuitry. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • By quantifying how different sensory feedback errors affect human behavior, prior studies have explored how visual signals are used to recalibrate arm movements 2,3 and auditory feedback is used to modify speech production 4-7 . (jove.com)
  • An alternative means of predicting cell-electrode behavior is by modeling the system using a geometry-based finite element analysis in an attempt to circumvent the limitations of oversimplifying the system in a lumped circuit element diagram. (wikipedia.org)
  • These basic facts about eye movement have been known for almost a hundred years, but only recently have researchers begun to look at eye movement behavior as a reflection of cognitive processing during reading. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostheses
  • Thanks to the remarkable cortical plasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled by the brain like natural sensor or effector channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • The implant uses the received power/data to convert the digital data to an analog output which will be delivered to the nerve via micro electrodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DTI-data obtained were processed using a FDA approved surgical navigation system program which uses a straightforward fiber-tracking approach known as fiber assignment by continuous tracking (FACT). (jove.com)
  • The aim of this work was to develop, validate, and demonstrate the practical utility of a high-quality, low-cost 32/64-channel bioamplifier system with real-time wireless data streaming capability. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The Internet device receives processed test data from the server as a download from the server via the Internet. (google.com.au)
  • The Internet device displays the processed data. (google.com.au)
  • and the data sampling properties (e.g. sampling rate and digital signal processing). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many methods, once developed, are kept purposely static so that data can be compared over long periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past, EEG devices circumvented this problem by measuring these signals in environments where electrical activity is strictly controlled and increasing the signal strength of the data coming from the brain through the application of a conductive solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient
  • An apparatus for monitoring EKG information includes a programmable apparatus carried by an ambulatory patient for performing continuous, real-time analyses of EKG information derived from the patient. (google.com)
  • The apparatus includes a dual purpose multicontact neuron-monitoring electrode assembly and an introducer tube for introducing the electrode assembly within the patient in the vicinity of the target tissue. (google.co.uk)
  • surface
  • Some researchers, such as Kensall Wise at the University of Michigan, have proposed tethering 'electrodes to be mounted on the exterior surface of the brain' to the inner surface of the skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • In analogy to EIT, surface electrodes are being placed on the earth, within bore holes, or within a vessel or pipe in order to locate resistivity anomalies or monitor mixtures of conductive fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Our work exhibits the importance and viability of a self-improving and user adapting computer-assisted EEG analysis system for diagnosing epilepsy which processes each channel exclusive to each other, along with the performance comparison of different machine learning techniques in the suggested system. (hindawi.com)
  • This process will then be repeated for numerous different electrode configurations and finally result in a two-dimensional tomogram according to the image reconstruction algorithms incorporated. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done using machine learning techniques that process different modalities, such as speech recognition, natural language processing, or facial expression detection, and produce either a labels (i.e. 'confused') or coordinates in a valence-arousal space. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Marvin Minsky, one of the pioneering computer scientists in artificial intelligence, relates emotions to the broader issues of machine intelligence stating in The Emotion Machine that emotion is "not especially different from the processes that we call 'thinking. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • On the other hand, lab-on-a-chip is concerned with miniaturization and integration of laboratory processes and experiments into single (often microfluidic) chips. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to being single-use only, larger than their MEMS counterparts, and the requirement of clean room facilities, high material and processing costs make silicon-based bio-MEMS less economically attractive. (wikipedia.org)
  • means
  • control means, coupled to the delivery means and the sensing means, for controlling the delivery of the at least one drug to selected locations along the support shaft via the delivery means, based on signals received from the sensing means. (google.co.uk)
  • array
  • the processed signal is then transferred to an implanted unit that stimulates the auditory nerve through a microelectrode array. (wikipedia.org)
  • The array of electrodes has to effectively stimulate 600-1000 locations, stimulating these optic neurons in the retina thus will create an image. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first experiment involving the use of an array of planar electrodes to record from cultured cells was conducted in 1972 by C.A. Thomas, Jr. and his colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental setup used a 2 x 15 array of gold electrodes plated with platinum black, each spaced 100 µm apart from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple
  • For a long time, it was assumed, primarily on the basis of the work of Moe et al 2 and Allessie et al, 3 that AF in patients was due to random propagation of multiple reentrant wavelets over the atria. (ahajournals.org)
  • analyses
  • Firstly, drug discovery in the last decades leading up to the 1990s had been limited due to the time and cost of running many chromatographic analyses in parallel on macroscopic equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • record
  • The research protocol, in part a pilot study to develop and improve techniques in order to record from large numbers of atrial epicardial electrodes in patients during OHS, was approved by the committee on the conduct of human research at University Hospitals of Cleveland. (ahajournals.org)
  • analysis
  • Computer-assisted analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) has a tremendous potential to assist clinicians during the diagnosis of epilepsy. (hindawi.com)
  • These devices substitute the functions performed by the ear drum and stapes while simulating the frequency analysis performed in the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emotional speech processing technologies recognize the user's emotional state using computational analysis of speech features. (wikipedia.org)
  • emotional
  • In children up to the age of puberty the appearance of high-amplitude theta waves, having a velocity between those of alpha and delta rhythms, usually signals the onset of emotional stimulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Affective computing (sometimes called artificial emotional intelligence, or emotion AI) is the study and development of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, process, and simulate human affects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • The papers published after this research also mark the first appearance of the expression brain-computer interface in scientific literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the late 19th to the mid-20th century, investigators used early tracking technologies to assist their observation, in a research climate that emphasised the measurement of human behaviour and skill for educational ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further research will examine the long term outcome of these treatments and the details surrounding the process and execution of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • In 1990 report was given on a bidirectional adaptive BCI controlling computer buzzer by an anticipatory brain potential, the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are sometimes contrasted with a brain-computer interface, which connects the brain to a computer rather than a device meant to replace missing biological functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regarding the development of electrodes implanted in the brain, an early difficulty was reliably locating the electrodes, originally done by inserting the electrodes with needles and breaking off the needles at the desired depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The processed signal is sent to the brain through the optical nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • NeuroSky, Inc. is a manufacturer of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies for consumer product applications, which was founded in 2004 in Silicon Valley, California. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • The equation above, however, relies on modeling the electrode, cells, and their surroundings as an equivalent circuit diagram. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, most people don't have rooms in their house devoid of electronic devices nor do they want to apply a conductive liquid to their head every time they use a BCI device. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Myocytes harvested from embryonic chicks were dissociated and cultured onto the MEAs, and signals up to 1 mV high in amplitude were recorded. (wikipedia.org)
  • The separation sciences follow a similar time line of development and also become increasingly transformed into high performance instruments. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a progressive loss of ability to hear high frequencies with aging known as presbycusis. (wikipedia.org)
  • speech
  • The terms hearing impaired or hard of hearing are usually reserved for people who have relative insensitivity to sound in the speech frequencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • image
  • The limited acquisition time frame enforces trade-offs in the image quality. (jove.com)
  • independently
  • The octant was invented in 1730 by Thomas Godfrey, a glazier in Philadelphia, and independently at the same time in England by the mathematician John Hadley, who began work on a similar version of the octant. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Human hearing extends in frequency from 20-20,000 Hz, and in amplitude from 0 dB to 130 dB or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many qualities of human hearing besides frequency range and amplitude that can't easily be measured quantitatively. (wikipedia.org)
  • lead
  • During AF, atrial electrograms (AEGs) were recorded for 1 to 5 minutes from 404 epicardial electrodes arranged in bipoles along with ECG lead II or ventricular electrogram. (ahajournals.org)
  • possible
  • Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, it may be necessary for the cells to be cultured or otherwise placed as close to the electrodes as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • visual
  • Startle potentiation is calculated as the increase in startle response magnitude during presentation of sets of visual threat cues that signal delivery of mild electric shock relative to sets of matched cues that signal the absence of shock (no-threat cues). (jove.com)
  • Eye movement in reading involves the visual processing of written text. (wikipedia.org)
  • less
  • The scanning time was less than 9 min. (jove.com)
  • To minimize the fraction of carriers that recombine before reaching the collector-base junction, the transistor's base region must be thin enough that carriers can diffuse across it in much less time than the semiconductor's minority-carrier lifetime. (wikipedia.org)