• corrosion
  • In 1969, she was commended when awarded the William Blum award: "Your methods of applying X-ray and electron microscopy to the materials and components of lead-acid and silver-zinc batteries have made a substantial contribution to the understanding of battery grid corrosion and active materials reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Equivalent circuit for an electrochemical cell. (pnas.org)
  • A sensor system accurately measures nitrogen oxide (NOx) in a gas mixture via the use of at least one electrochemical sensing cell and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). (google.es)
  • The sensor system has a sensor with an electrochemical sensing cell for producing an electrical signal (current, voltage, etc.) indicative of an amount of the nitrogen oxide within the gas mixture. (google.es)
  • Optionally, based upon the material structure of the sensing cell, the sensor system may also be equipped with an electrochemical pumping cell for consuming oxygen (O 2 ) within the gas mixture. (google.es)
  • 2. The sensor system of claim 1, further comprising an electrochemical pumping cell for consuming oxygen within said gas mixture. (google.es)
  • For example, the key reaction in a solid oxide fuel cell is the oxygen reduction reaction that occurs at the triple phase boundary. (ceramics.org)
  • In addition, the chassis dynamometer test cycle for the JC08 mode (post new long-term regulation in Japan) was conducted to evaluate the practicality of a honeycomb electrochemical cell. (sae.org)
  • 11 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the electrochemical cell further comprises a reference electrode. (google.co.uk)
  • We study the lithiation of a Au electrode in an electrochemical liquid cell using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (rsc.org)
  • For example, in aqueous conditions the competing reactions in the cell are the formation of oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead as the substrate's concentration decreases the potential across the cell increases in order to maintain the fixed reaction rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an electrolytic cell the existence of overpotential implies the cell requires more energy than thermodynamically expected to drive a reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quantity of overpotential is specific to each cell design and varies across cells and operational conditions, even for the same reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrosynthesis
  • The most well-known electrosynthesis is the Kolbe electrolysis, in which two carboxylic acids decarboxylate, and the remaining structures bond together: A variation is called the non-Kolbe reaction when a heteroatom (nitrogen or oxygen) is present at the α-position. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction of protons
  • The results of these investigations can be represented by a reaction sequence where the net result is the reduction of protons present as either undissociated HCOOH or HcO(+) to form hydrogen gas. (dtic.mil)
  • sensor
  • This linear output is one of the advantages of electrochemical sensors over other sensor technologies, (e.g. infrared), whose output must be linearized before they can be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, since the diffusion barrier is primarily mechanical, the calibration of electrochemical sensors tends to be more stable over time and so electrochemical sensor based instruments require much less maintenance than some other detection technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • As explained in an article (pdf) by Asylum Research , a partner with ORNL on developing the technique, "The intrinsic link between concentration of ionic species and/or oxidation states of the host cation and molar volume of the material results in electrochemical strain and surface displacement. (ceramics.org)
  • Hence, we showed that oxide species do not prevent the electrochemical reactions, opening the path for the study of metal oxyfluorides as active materials for FIBs. (rsc.org)
  • involve
  • MLnx+ + Base + H2 ⇌ HMLn(x-1)+ + HBase+ Such reaction are assumed to involve the intermediacy of dihydrogen complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • describes
  • Kumar is lead author of a new paper out of Oak Ridge National Laboratory that describes a new technique- electrochemical strain microscopy -that allows scientists to directly measure oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on ion conducting solid surfaces, like yttria-stabilized zirconia. (ceramics.org)
  • This study describes a sensitive bio-electrochemical detection method for extensively used toxic organothiophosphate pesticides temephos and dimethoate, and organocarbamate fenobucarb, by employing a simple mediatorless cyclic voltammetric technique. (rsc.org)
  • current
  • As a consequence, the kinetically controlled faradaic current density of any electrochemical reaction on a nanoelectrode deviates from the one at a macroelectrode. (pnas.org)
  • There is an increase of current in response to electron beam irradiation, and electron beam effects on the observed electrochemical reaction are discussed. (rsc.org)
  • Side reactions decrease the current efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • This consumes current in side reactions produced outside the target voltage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrochemical gas sensors are gas detectors that measure the concentration of a target gas by oxidizing or reducing the target gas at an electrode and measuring the resulting current. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of the technology involves the study of the electrochemical reactors, their potential and current distribution, mass transport conditions, hydrodynamics, geometry and components as well as the quantification of its overall performance in terms of reaction yield, conversion efficiency, and energy efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • combines
  • Oxidation numbers of other elemental groups: Elements of Column I in a compound = +1 Elements of Column II in a compound = +2 It is important to realize that the oxidation number of an atom can change when it combines differently during reaction. (slideplayer.com)
  • potentially
  • These x-rays can penetrate the material to produce both high-resolution images and spectroscopic data-a sort of electrochemical "fingerprint" that reveals, pixel by pixel, where lithium ions remain in the material, where they've been removed leaving only iron phosphate, and other potentially interesting electrochemical details. (nsti.org)
  • electrodes
  • Most electrochemical operations are performed in filter-press reactors with parallel plate electrodes or, less often, in stirred tanks with rotating cylinder electrodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • deviations
  • Rather, the stochasticity of the reactions produces significant deviations in the number of molecules from the macroscopic average concentrations. (pnas.org)