• bacteria
  • While bacterial genes encoding sodium channels are different than their human counterparts, evolution has conserved many similarities of ion channel design since multi-celled animals diverged from bacteria hundreds of millions of years ago. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the late 1980s, he turned to study of bacterial self-organization, believing that bacteria hold the key to understanding the larger biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • He developed new pattern forming bacteria species, became a pioneer in the study of bacterial intelligence and social behaviors of bacteria, and was an influential figure in establishing the now rapidly evolving physics of living systems (biological physics and physical biology) disciplines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to killing bacteria directly they have been demonstrated to have a number of immunomodulatory functions that may be involved in the clearance of infection, including the ability to alter host gene expression, act as chemokines and/or induce chemokine production, inhibiting lipopolysaccharide induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, promoting wound healing, and modulating the responses of dendritic cells and cells of the adaptive immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • When targeting bacteria, most foods are irradiated to significantly reduce the number of active microbes, not to sterilize all microbes in the product. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Immunologist Hugh McDevitt discovers regulatory genes believed to control the body's reponses to foreign proteins, which suggests that people may have predictable susceptibility to certain diseases. (stanford.edu)
  • molecules
  • This technology, called ion mobility-mass spectrometry, combines ion mobility spectroscopy that separates and identifies electrically charged molecules by the speed with which they travel through a gas-filled column with mass spectrometry that precisely "weighs" individual molecules by how quickly they travel a given distance in the absence of gas. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Phagocytosis occurs after the foreign body, a bacterial cell, for example, has bound to molecules called "receptors" that are on the surface of the phagocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • They picked this particular strain because when its genome was sequenced it revealed the presence of 20 gene clusters that carry blueprints for making secondary metabolites. (technologynetworks.com)
  • encodes
  • The Escherichia coli arsC gene encodes arsenate reductase (ArsC), which catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-coupled electrochemical reduction of arsenate to the more toxic arsenite. (jove.com)
  • protein
  • 3 In the 1990s the putative gene (the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR ) gene) was cloned 4 and the affected protein was identified as a gated chloride channel, 5 supporting the hypothesis that CF is linked to abnormal transepithelial ion transport. (bmj.com)
  • Large quantities of a protein can then be extracted from the bacterial or eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • High level expression of the genes encoding some of these exporters in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms (including human) result in the development of resistance to multiple drugs such as antibiotics and anti-cancer agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Located upstream of the multiple cloning site are the promoter regions and the transcription start site which regulate the expression of cloned gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • They are designed to protect their bacterial host and attack its enemies, so they often have the right kind of activity to serve as the basis for effective new drugs. (technologynetworks.com)
  • molecular
  • In the early 2000s, the study of gene structure and function, molecular genetics, has been among the most prominent sub-fields of molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • demonstrate
  • Teaming up with the electrophysiologist Georg Nagel at the Max Planck Institute in Frankfurt, they could demonstrate that a single gene from the alga Chlamydomonas produced large photocurents when expressed in the oocyte of a frog. (wikipedia.org)
  • smaller
  • Publishing their results in Nature Communications, the researchers maneuvered around that barrier by engineering ion channels from bacterial genes, which are smaller. (labroots.com)
  • patients
  • The final result can be a better functional neurological outcome for electrically forsx coma patients. (fin-forex.com)
  • 16 January A new gene therapy technique has restored the sight of six patients who would otherwise have gone blind. (wikipedia.org)