• physiological
  • Physiological data are displayed continuously on a CRT, LED or LCD screen as data channels along the time axis, They may be accompanied by numerical readouts of computed parameters on the original data, such as maximum, minimum and average values, pulse and respiratory frequencies, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the tracings of physiological parameters along time (X axis), digital medical displays have automated numeric readouts of the peak and/or average parameters displayed on the screen. (wikipedia.org)
  • electromagnetic waves
  • RADAR - an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging - is the use of electromagnetic waves at sub-optical frequencies (i.e., less than about 10 12 Hz) to sense objects at a distance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is likely that the first intentional transmission of a signal by means of electromagnetic waves was performed in an experiment by David Edward Hughes around 1880, although this was considered to be induction at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maxwell's theory showing that light and Hertzian electromagnetic waves were the same phenomenon at different wavelengths led "Maxwellian" scientist such as John Perry, Frederick Thomas Trouton and Alexander Trotter to assume they would be analogous to optical signaling and the Serbian American engineer Nikola Tesla to consider them relatively useless for communication since "light" could not transmit further than line of sight. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1886-88 Heinrich Rudolf Hertz conducted a series of experiments that proved the existence of Maxwell's electromagnetic waves, using a frequency in what would later be called the radio spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourier
  • books.google.co.in - A resource for probability AND random processes, with hundreds ofworked examples and probability and Fourier transform tablesThis survival guide in probability and random processes eliminatesthe need to pore through several resources to find a certainformula or table. (google.co.in)
  • For radial data sampling, the phase- and frequency-encoding gradients are replaced by two simultaneously applied frequency-encoding gradients that rotate the Fourier lines in data space. (wikipedia.org)
  • While most of the energy of the signal is contained within fc ± fΔ, it can be shown by Fourier analysis that a wider range of frequencies is required to precisely represent an FM signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • EEG signal is the representation of voltage fluctuations which are caused by the flow of neurons ionic current. (hindawi.com)
  • Billions of neurons maintain brains electric charge. (hindawi.com)
  • Accurately probing and recording the electrical signals in the brain would help better understand the relationship among a local population of neurons that are responsible for a specific function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photoreceptors are the specialized neurons that convert photons into electrical signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • At any instant the spinal cord receives an ensemble of information from all receptors throughout the body that signals a proprioceptive "image" that represents time and space, and it computes which neurons to excite next based on the most recently perceived "images. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peripheral input then provides important information from which the probabilities of a given set of neurons being active at any given time can be finely tuned to a given situation during a specific phase of a step cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) or microelectrode arrays are devices that contain multiple plates or shanks through which neural signals are obtained or delivered, essentially serving as neural interfaces that connect neurons to electronic circuitry. (wikipedia.org)
  • System
  • EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interface System. (wiley.com)
  • 3. A fully automated method according to claim 1 wherein the processable data are generated by pre-processing raw data generated by the medical imaging system. (google.co.uk)
  • 5. A fully automated method according to claim 1 wherein the plurality of stored tissue classifier elements are developed using known outcome data by a process selected from the group consisting of logistic regression, decision trees, non-parametric regression, Fisher discriminant analysis, Bayesian network modeling, and a fuzzy logic system. (google.co.uk)
  • a computer configured to process the ultrasound data and position data to thereby determine the location of the point associated with the surface of the animal organ with respect to an on site reference coordinate system. (google.es)
  • This system is based on taking discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the signals epochs which are then reduced using principal component analysis, and then they are fed into a classifier. (hindawi.com)
  • Our work exhibits the importance and viability of a self-improving and user adapting computer-assisted EEG analysis system for diagnosing epilepsy which processes each channel exclusive to each other, along with the performance comparison of different machine learning techniques in the suggested system. (hindawi.com)
  • A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • We present a method for controlling a dynamical system using real-time fMRI. (diva-portal.org)
  • In each classification 9000 brain voxels were used and the response time for the system to detect a change of activity was on average 2-4 seconds. (diva-portal.org)
  • The important characteristics of spectrum analyzer are signal to noise ratio test and noise figure test which improves overall performance of the system. (yumpu.com)
  • Wireless system design is one of the hottest fields in electrical engineering. (circuitcellar.com)
  • So, lots of kids detected with APD can develop much better skills in time as their auditory system matures. (iytmed.org)
  • A visual prosthesis system consists of an external (or implantable) imaging system which acquires and processes the video. (wikipedia.org)
  • A GPS device can retrieve from the GPS system location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This new availability of the US military GPS system for civilian use required a certain technical collaboration with the private sector for some time, before it could become a commercial reality. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2000, the Clinton administration removed the military use signal restrictions, thus providing full commercial access to the US GPS satellite system. (wikipedia.org)
  • A flow cytometer has five main components: a flow cell, a measuring system, a detector, an amplification system, and a computer for analysis of the signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The detector and analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) system converts analog measurements of forward-scattered light (FSC) and side-scattered light (SSC) as well as dye-specific fluorescence signals into digital signals that can be processed by a computer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edison would go on the next year to take out U.S. Patent 465,971 on a system of electrical wireless communication between ships based on electrostatic coupling using the water and elevated terminals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This CPU cache has the advantage of faster access than off-chip memory, and increases the processing speed of the system for many applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal cord processes and interprets proprioception in a manner similar to how our visual system processes information. (wikipedia.org)
  • smartphones
  • While a sizeable population across the globe is a dedicated packaged food products buyer, it has been observed that consumers are finding it easy to read the detailed product information stored in a chip, using their smartphones, computers, or scanners. (yumpu.com)
  • The GPS capability of smartphones may use assisted GPS (A-GPS) technology, which can use the base station or cell towers to provide the device location tracking capability, especially when GPS signals are poor or unavailable. (wikipedia.org)
  • wherein
  • 6. A fully automated method according to claim 5 wherein at least one of the plurality of stored tissue classifier elements is determined by a process selected from the group consisting of post-operative histological examination, direct tissue inspection, and labeling by one or more experts. (google.co.uk)
  • 5. The percutaneous-point determination device of claim 1 , wherein the emitted ultrasound beam has a variable frequency to provide a predetermined axial resolution along the ultrasound beam axis. (google.es)
  • 6. The percutaneous-point determination device of claim 5 , wherein the frequency of the emitted ultrasound beam is variable between about 1 MHZ and about 15 MHZ. (google.es)
  • 10. The percutaneous-point determination device of claim 1 , wherein the computer is configured to cross-correlate the ultrasound data with reference ultrasound data to thereby determine the distance from the ultrasound device to the point. (google.es)
  • 9 . The method of claim 8 , wherein the radiation has electric field lines, wherein each of the elongated items has a longitudinal axis, and wherein the longitudinal axes are not substantially aligned with the electric field lines. (google.com)
  • 11 . The method of claim 10 , wherein the ratio differs for differing portions of the catalyst, and wherein the allowing comprises allowing the differing portions of the catalyst to be consumed by the plasma at differing times such that the plasma contains a varying ratio of the electrically conductive component to the at least one additive. (google.com)
  • 12 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the multi-mode cavity is configured to support at least a first mode and a second mode of the radiation, each of the modes having a maximum electric field vector in the cavity, each of the vectors having a magnitude, and wherein a ratio between the first mode magnitude and the second mode magnitude is less than about 1:10. (google.com)
  • The double echo sequence corresponds to a combination of a refocused gradient echo sequence, which is known, among other things, by the acronym FISP ( F ast I maging with S teady State P recision and a sequence wherein a spin echo based on a refocusing partial effect of each radio-frequency signal is utilized and that is known, among other things, by the acronym PSIF. (google.com)
  • neural
  • A problem in localizing sources is that a unique relationship may not exist between the recorded EEG or MEG signals and the neural source(s). (google.com)
  • A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain-machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device. (wikipedia.org)
  • intensity
  • 1 Glottal open quotient in singing: Measurements and correlation with laryngeal mechanisms, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency Nathalie Henrich, Christophe D Alessandro, Boris Doval, Michèle Castellengo To cite this version: Nathalie Henrich, Christophe D Alessandro, Boris Doval, Michèle Castellengo. (artsdocbox.com)
  • It explores the relationship between open quotient and laryngeal mechanisms, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency. (artsdocbox.com)
  • The audio and electroglottographic signals of 18 classically trained male and female singers were recorded and analyzed with regard to vocal intensity, fundamental frequency, and open quotient. (artsdocbox.com)
  • The open quotient is strongly related to vocal intensity in mechanism 1 and to fundamental frequency in mechanism Acoustical Society of America. (artsdocbox.com)
  • At higher exposures, however, image sensor noise is dominated by shot noise, which is not Gaussian and not independent of signal intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostheses
  • Thanks to the remarkable cortical plasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled by the brain like natural sensor or effector channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • acoustic
  • The founding phase of the Heinrich Hertz Institute began on August 1, 1927 with the written intention of the Study Society for Oscillation Research to establish an institute for the research on electrical and acoustic oscillation at the Technical University of Berlin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orlikoff, Indirect methods have also been used, based on inverse filtering of volume velocity or acoustic signals Holmberg et al. (artsdocbox.com)
  • Auditory processing disorder (APD), likewise referred to as main acoustic processing disorder (CAPD), is a hearing issue that impacts about 5% of school-aged children. (iytmed.org)
  • Children with acoustic processing condition might have visible problems from an extremely young age, although often the symptoms might not be apparent or only become apparent later on when they start school, college, university or a new job. (iytmed.org)
  • Only audiologists can identify acoustic processing disorder. (iytmed.org)
  • Auditory cohesion skills- drawing reasonings from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems- need heightened acoustic processing and language levels. (iytmed.org)
  • pulse
  • Bio-Optics:Optical Measurement of Pulse Wave Transit Time. (wiley.com)
  • Only the combination of (i) a low-flip angle excitation which leaves unused longitudinal magnetization for an immediate next excitation with (ii) the acquisition of a gradient echo which does not need a further radio-frequency pulse that would affect the residual longitudinal magnetization, allows for the rapid repetition of the basic sequence interval and the resulting speed of the entire image acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • FLASH reduced the typical sequence interval to what is minimally required for imaging: a slice-selective radio-frequency pulse and gradient, a phase-encoding gradient, and a (reversed) frequency-encoding gradient generating the echo for data acquisition. (wikipedia.org)
  • represents
  • In this equation, f ( τ ) {\displaystyle f(\tau )\,} is the instantaneous frequency of the oscillator and f Δ {\displaystyle f_{\Delta }\,} is the frequency deviation, which represents the maximum shift away from fc in one direction, assuming xm(t) is limited to the range ±1. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectrum
  • Spectrum analyzers are widely adopted for manufacturing, designing and engaging in the field services and repairs electrical devices and are also used to determine performance, error detection and troubleshooting errors. (yumpu.com)
  • For the case of a carrier modulated by a single sine wave, the resulting frequency spectrum can be calculated using Bessel functions of the first kind, as a function of the sideband number and the modulation index. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • 4. A fully automated method according to claim 3 further comprising normalizing the processable data prior to computationally processing the processable data. (google.co.uk)
  • Advancement in signal processing and machine learning techniques is making it possible to automatically analyse EEG data to detect epochs with epileptic patterns. (hindawi.com)
  • The software is capable of adjusting parameters (e.g., voltage, compensation) for the sample being tested, and also assists in displaying initial sample information while acquiring sample data to ensure that parameters are set correctly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital-integrated circuit which accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead of processing all of a long word on one integrated circuit, multiple circuits in parallel processed subsets of each data word. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digital data can be encoded and transmitted via FM by shifting the carrier's frequency among a predefined set of frequencies representing digits - for example one frequency can represent a binary 1 and a second can represent binary 0. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the data sampling properties (e.g. sampling rate and digital signal processing). (wikipedia.org)
  • analyze
  • Modern flow cytometers are able to analyze many thousand particles per second, in "real time," and, if configured as cell sorters, can actively separate and isolate particles at similar rates having specified optical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • Computer-assisted analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) has a tremendous potential to assist clinicians during the diagnosis of epilepsy. (hindawi.com)
  • The Video Coding & Analytics department is researching actively the efficient encoding, transport, processing and analysis of video signals as well as machine learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus in the Vision & Imaging Technologies department is on complex 2D/3D analysis and synthesis methods, on computer vision as well as innovative camera, sensor, display and projection systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a diagnostic analysis technology, which assists physicians in reducing detection errors. (yumpu.com)
  • These devices substitute the functions performed by the ear drum and stapes while simulating the frequency analysis performed in the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process exists in opposition to phonetics and word analysis, as a different method of recognizing and verbalizing visual language (i.e. reading). (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field of chemistry uses analysis in at least three ways: to identify the components of a particular chemical compound (qualitative analysis), to identify the proportions of components in a mixture (quantitative analysis), and to break down chemical processes and examine chemical reactions between elements of matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemists can use isotope analysis to assist analysts with issues in anthropology, archeology, food chemistry, forensics, geology, and a host of other questions of physical science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signals intelligence applies cryptanalysis and frequency analysis to break codes and ciphers. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluctuations
  • These machines were widely used and saved many lives, but they had several restrictions, including sensitivity to electrical interference, base level fluctuations and absence of numeric readouts and alarms. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988
  • In 1988, the lumbar anterior root implant and functional electrical stimulation (FES) facilitated standing and walking, respectively, for a group of paraplegics. (wikipedia.org)
  • digital
  • Modern medical display devices commonly use digital signal processing (DSP), which has the advantages of miniaturization, portability, and multi-parameter displays that can track many different vital signs at once. (wikipedia.org)
  • Image noise can range from almost imperceptible specks on a digital photograph taken in good light, to optical and radioastronomical images that are almost entirely noise, from which a small amount of information can be derived by sophisticated processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquisition is mediated by a computer physically connected to the flow cytometer, and the software which handles the digital interface with the cytometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several specialized processing devices have followed from the technology: A digital signal processor (DSP) is specialized for signal processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • engineers
  • Engineers, computerscientists, biostatisticians, and researchers in communicationswill also benefit from having a single resource to address mostissues in probability and random processes. (google.co.in)
  • Electrical engineers analyse systems in electronics. (wikipedia.org)
  • voltage
  • An electrical energy meter includes a voltage digitizing circuit, a current digitizing circuit, a metering circuit, a clock circuit, and a source of externally-generated time standard information. (google.com)
  • Technology
  • Work on the various video compression standards received the Technology and Engineering Emmy award multiple times. (wikipedia.org)
  • physics
  • This book is of particular value to undergraduate and graduatestudents in electrical, computer, and civil engineering, as well asstudents in physics and applied mathematics. (google.co.in)
  • The institute engages in applied research and development in the fields of physics, electrical engineering and computer sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • fundamental
  • Fundamental frequency and open quotient are derived from the differentiated electroglottographic signal, using the DECOM DEgg Correlation-based Open quotient Measurement method. (artsdocbox.com)
  • Some of the biggest instruments have 64-foot pipes (a foot here means "sonic-foot", a measure quite close to the English measurement unit), and it sounds to an 8 Hz frequency fundamental tone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • Methods and apparatus are provided for igniting, modulating, and sustaining a plasma for various plasma processes and treatments. (google.com)
  • bandwidth
  • For example, narrowband FM (NFM) is used for two way radio systems such as Family Radio Service, in which the carrier is allowed to deviate only 2.5 kHz above and below the center frequency with speech signals of no more than 3.5 kHz bandwidth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wideband FM is used for FM broadcasting, in which music and speech are transmitted with up to 75 kHz deviation from the center frequency and carry audio with up to a 20 kHz bandwidth and subcarriers up to 92 kHz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the sidebands are on both sides of the carrier, their count is doubled, and then multiplied by the modulating frequency to find the bandwidth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technique
  • Depending on the desired contrast, the generic FLASH technique provides spoiled versions that destroy transverse coherences and yield T1 contrast as well as refocused versions (constant phase per repetition) and fully balanced versions (zero phase per repetition) that incorporate transverse coherences into the steady-state signal and offer T1/T2 contrast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The generic FLASH technique emerges as a gradient echo sequence which combines a low-flip angle radio-frequency excitation of the NMR signal (recorded as a spatially encoded gradient echo) with a rapid repetition of the basic sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique is revolutionary in shortening MRI measuring times by up to two orders of magnitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • This modulation technique is known as frequency-shift keying (FSK). (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • For a long time, it was assumed, primarily on the basis of the work of Moe et al 2 and Allessie et al, 3 that AF in patients was due to random propagation of multiple reentrant wavelets over the atria. (ahajournals.org)
  • Graphics processing units (GPUs) are processors designed primarily for realtime rendering of 3D images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Engineering
  • Members of this society were the German Reichspost, the Prussian Ministry of Science, Art and National Education, the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft, the Technische Hochschule zu Berlin, the large corporations of the electrical industry, and the German Electrical Engineering Association. (wikipedia.org)
  • TK Electrical engineering. (unitn.it)
  • The Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering (ECE) is home to nationally and internationally recognized researchers. (queensu.ca)
  • systems
  • Focal points of independent and contract research conducted by Fraunhofer HHI are photonic components and systems, fiber optic sensor systems, and image signal processing and transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continued increases in microprocessor capacity have since rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessors used in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Over time, other theories have been put forth proposing the mechanisms by which words are recognized in isolation, yet with both speed and accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • uses
  • Computer Aided Detection (CAD) software is a set of algorithms that uses pattern recognition method assisting physicians with interpretation of medical images. (yumpu.com)
  • Siemens uses the name FLASH, General Electric used the name SPGR (Spoiled Gradient Echo), and Philips uses the name CE-FFE-T1 (Contrast-Enhanced Fast Field Echo) or T1-FFE. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatments
  • Furthermore, a better understanding of the processes involved in word recognition may enable more specific treatments for individuals with reading disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • image
  • These outgoing waves eventually bounce off some distant object and return an echo to the sender, where they are received, amplified, and processed electronically to yield an image showing the object's location. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In terms of MRI, signals with different spatial encodings that are required for the reconstruction of a full image need to be acquired by generating multiple signals - usually in a repetitive way using multiple radio-frequency excitations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In either case, repetition times are as short as 2 to 10 milliseconds, so that the use of 64 to 256 repetitions results in image acquisition times of about 0.1 to 2.5 seconds for a two-dimensional image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most recently, highly undersampled radial FLASH MRI acquisitions have been combined with an iterative image reconstruction by regularized nonlinear inversion to achieve real-time MRI at a temporal resolution of 20 to 30 milliseconds for images with a spatial resolution of 1.5 to 2.0 millimeters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The introduction of FLASH MRI sequences in diagnostic imaging for the first time allowed for a drastic shortening of the measuring times without a substantial loss in image quality. (wikipedia.org)
  • When we view a painting, the brain interprets the total visual field, as opposed to processing each individual pixel of information independently, and then derives an image. (wikipedia.org)
  • real-time
  • Another future potential application can be to serve as a tool for stroke and Parkinson patients to be able to train the damaged brain area and get real-time feedback for more efficient training. (diva-portal.org)
  • subtraction
  • If dark-frame subtraction is not done, or if the exposure time is long enough that the hot pixel charge exceeds the linear charge capacity, the noise will be more than just shot noise, and hot pixels appear as salt-and-pepper noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • However, more sophisticated measuring devices, such as the Siemens double-coil recording galvanometer, which displayed electric voltages as small as one ten thousandth of a volt, led to success. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before microprocessors, small computers had been built using racks of circuit boards with many medium- and small-scale integrated circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • power
  • Improved technologies in chip manufacturing processes aid hardware not only by lowering power consumption and reducing size, but also with dedicated embedded communication stack and chip coils. (circuitcellar.com)
  • The integration of a whole CPU onto a single chip or on a few chips greatly reduced the cost of processing power, increasing efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Though it can be signal dependent, it will be signal independent if other noise sources are big enough to cause dithering, or if dithering is explicitly applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • The grain of photographic film is a signal-dependent noise, with similar statistical distribution to shot noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Devices
  • It can consist of one or more sensors, processing components, display devices (which are sometimes in themselves called "monitors"), as well as communication links for displaying or recording the results elsewhere through a monitoring network. (wikipedia.org)