• adverse
  • Some D.A.R.E.-by-Community interactions were observed: urban and rural communities showed some benefits, while suburban areas experienced small adverse effects from participation. (druglibrary.org)
  • PMID 22084504 P. D. Donnelly, "Explaining the Glasgow effect: could adverse childhood experiences play a role? (wikipedia.org)
  • Do adverse experiences such as chronic psychological stress, trauma, racism, or shame influence health and if so, what are the biological mechanisms of these effects? (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristics
  • The possibility of bias arises because the apparent difference in outcome between these two groups of units may depend on characteristics that affected whether or not a unit received a given treatment instead of due to the effect of the treatment per se. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • According to Research and Analysis Working Group (RAWG, MKUKUTA Monitoring System & Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, 2009), over 70% of the annual budget of education in Mainland Tanzania is allocated to basic education activities, of which more than 50% is spent on primary education. (scielo.org.za)
  • In the area of gender inequality, his research (with Matt Huffman) has addressed occupational segregation and gender devaluation and the effects of women in workplace management positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salutogenesis David Walsh, Glasgow Centre for Population Health, 2010: "[R]ecent research has highlighted the existence of a 'Scottish effect', a term used to describe the higher levels of poor health experienced in Scotland over and above that explained by socio-economic circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scale
  • Critical analysis of 2 nurse perception instruments: the Index of Work Satisfaction and the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, interpretation of these analyses is dependent on the scale of the time variable (i.e. how it is coded). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glasgow
  • Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status? (ebscohost.com)
  • The Glasgow effect refers to the unexplained poor health and low life expectancy of residents of Glasgow, Scotland, compared to the rest of the United Kingdom and Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Glasgow effect: useful construct or epidemiological dead end? (wikipedia.org)
  • Several
  • Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the effect, including vitamin D deficiency, cold winters, higher levels of poverty than the figures suggest, high levels of stress, and social alienation. (wikipedia.org)
  • estimate
  • A randomized longitudinal field experiment was conducted to estimate the short- and long-term effects of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education program (D.A.R.E.) on students attitudes, beliefs, social skills, and drug use behaviors. (druglibrary.org)
  • hypotheses
  • Hypotheses include vitamin D deficiency caused by lack of sunlight, more poverty than the figures suggest, cold winters, high levels of stress, a culture of alienation, and pessimism brought on by the lingering effects of industrialisation and the city's more recent deindustrialisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure identifiability of parameters, we can add the following "sum-to-zero" constraints: ∑ i α i = ∑ j β j = ∑ i ∑ j γ i j = 0 {\displaystyle \sum _{i}\alpha _{i}=\sum _{j}\beta _{j}=\sum _{i}\sum _{j}\gamma _{ij}=0} In the classical approach, testing null hypotheses (that the factors have no effect) is achieved via their significance which requires calculating sums of squares. (wikipedia.org)
  • intervention
  • Training diabetes care teams had no effect on HbA 1c levels (intervention effect 0.01, 95% confidence interval −0.02 to 0.04, P=0.5), even after adjusting for age and sex of the participants. (bmj.com)
  • Results
  • Results: The simultaneous hospital group- and individual-level analysis showed individual exposure to fluoroquinolones and collective exposure to penicillins to be associated with MRSA isolation after adjustment for colonization pressure and other potential confounders. (uantwerpen.be)
  • Adjustment for the time interval between the two visits had little effect on the results. (uva.nl)
  • important
  • He has argued that quantitative analysis in the form of quantitative geography has an important role in emancipatory human geography (see critical geography). (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • The Effect of Support for Action Against the Tobacco Industry on Smoking Among Young Adults. (ebscohost.com)
  • Asadullah and Yalonetzky (2012) and Shindler and Fleisch (2007) among others, provide detailed analysis of inter-state/province disparity in terms of access to primary education vis-à-vis state/province development in India and South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • University
  • The treatment effect estimated by simply comparing a particular outcome-rate of cancer or lifetime earnings-between those who smoked and did not smoke or attended university and did not attend university would be biased by any factors that predict smoking or university attendance, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • programs
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effect that detection of chronic disease via health screening programs has on health behaviors, particularly smoking. (ebscohost.com)
  • factors
  • The experimental design is balanced if each treatment has the same number of replicates, K {\displaystyle K} . In such a case, the design is also said to be orthogonal, allowing to fully distinguish the effects of both factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • particular
  • In particular, the paper investigates the effects of pupil-teacher ratio (PTR), pupil-latrine ratio (PLR), pupil-classroom ratio (PCR), availability of electricity in schools, and secondary school and above education of women and men aged 15-49 years on the percentage of students passing the PSLE. (scielo.org.za)
  • short
  • Previously documented short-terms effects had dissipated by the conclusion of the study. (druglibrary.org)
  • Reactions to this critique include "may the Saints & Angels protect us from ever having a paper this thoroughly dismantled" and "Seriously though, if you are interested in multilevel modelling I highly recommend this short, instructive and frankly rather sassy paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The objective of this study was to assess the effects of extraction of severely decayed pulpally involved primary teeth on weight and height in underweight preschool Filipino children. (uva.nl)
  • general
  • The Surgeon General reports that positive effects have been demonstrated regarding attitudes towards the police. (wikipedia.org)