**regression**- Multi-level analyses (random-effects ordinal regression) were conducted on seven waves of post-treatment data. (druglibrary.org)
- Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. (ebscohost.com)
- A random-effects ordinal regression model for multilevel analysis. (springer.com)
- In this research, a commodity-based framework for freight demand forecasting using a Structural Regression Model (SRM) is explored, and applied to the original California Statewide Freight Forecasting Model (CSFFM) using the Freight Analysis Framework Version 4 (FAF4) data. (uci.edu)
- Logistic multilevel regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between patient and general practice characteristics and referral compliance. (biomedcentral.com)
- Fixed effects model Generalized linear mixed model Linear regression Mixed-design analysis of variance Multilevel model Random effects model Repeated measures design Fisher, RA (1918). (wikipedia.org)
- Fixed Effects: Fixed regression coefficients may be obtained for an overall equation that represents how, averaging across subjects, the subjects change over time. (wikipedia.org)

**application of multilevel**- One application of multilevel modeling (MLM) is the analysis of repeated measures data. (wikipedia.org)

**contextual**- Analyses that address the independent or synergistic effects of individual or contextual risk factors are often of interest. (wikipedia.org)

**latent**- Alcohol use among African American and white siblings: A multilevel latent growth modeling approach. (springer.com)
- and (4) the forecasting of freight demand using SRM method to comprehensively consider the direct effect, indirect effect and latent variables. (uci.edu)

**employs**- The paper employs a multilevel framework using aggregate regional data from Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania (BEST) and Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS). (scielo.org.za)
- Multilevel modeling with repeated measures employs the same statistical techniques as MLM with clustered data. (wikipedia.org)

**covariance**- Analysis of covariance: Its nature and uses. (springer.com)
- Alternative Specifications: Covariance Structure: Multilevel software provides several different covariance or error structures to choose from for the analysis of multilevel data (e.g. autoregressive). (wikipedia.org)

**statistical analysis**- Methods: For this purpose, 18 596 patients were included in a retrospective statistical analysis, applying multilevel modelling with discrete time intervals at the lowest level. (uantwerpen.be)
- Statistical analysis and optimal design for cluster randomized trials. (springer.com)
- In the statistical analysis of observational data, propensity score matching (PSM) is a statistical matching technique that attempts to estimate the effect of a treatment, policy, or other intervention by accounting for the covariates that predict receiving the treatment. (wikipedia.org)

**Behavior**- Effects of Disease Detection on Changes in Smoking Behavior. (ebscohost.com)
- Conclusions Residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods did have an adverse effect on adolescents' aggressive behavior, mainly because of a lack of effective parenting strategies thereby facilitating affiliations being made with deviant peers. (scielosp.org)

**siblings**- 2013. Education in sub-Saharan Africa: A new look at the effects of number of siblings. (iussp.org)

**Multivariate**- Multivariate analysis based on new sample Use analyses appropriate for non-independent matched samples if more than one nonparticipant is matched to each participant Note: When you have multiple matches for a single treated observation, it is essential to use Weighted Least Squares rather than OLS. (wikipedia.org)
- Analysis of variance F test (Includes a one-way ANOVA example) Mixed model Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) One-way ANOVA Repeated measures ANOVA Tukey's test of additivity Yates, Frank (March 1934). (wikipedia.org)

**data**- Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. (springer.com)
- Subsequently, mixed modeling has become a major area of statistical research, including work on computation of maximum likelihood estimates, non-linear mixed effect models, missing data in mixed effects models, and Bayesian estimation of mixed effects models. (wikipedia.org)
- Because the wafers and the sites represent unwanted sources of variation and because one of the objectives is to reduce the process sensitivity to these sources of variation, treating wafers and sites as random effects in the analysis of the data is a reasonable approach. (wikipedia.org)
- In multilevel modeling, an overall change function (e.g. linear, quadratic, cubic etc.) is fitted to the whole sample and, just as in multilevel modeling for clustered data, the slope and intercept may be allowed to vary. (wikipedia.org)
- In multilevel modeling for repeated measures data, the measurement occasions are nested within cases (e.g. individual or subject). (wikipedia.org)
- Mathematically, multilevel analysis with repeated measures is very similar to the analysis of data in which subjects are clustered in groups. (wikipedia.org)
- He (with colleagues) has challenged the 'gold standard' that fixed effects should be the standard approach to the analysis of Panel data and that a Hausman test is an appropriate way of choosing between a Fixed effects model and a Random effects model. (wikipedia.org)

**outcomes**- Conclusions: These results support efforts to reduce prescriptions of selected antimicrobial drug classes such as fluoroquinolones and show the added value of multilevel analysis for research on the adverse outcomes of antibiotic prescribing. (uantwerpen.be)
- A multilevel analysis of the effects of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index on nurse outcomes. (nih.gov)
- PSM attempts to reduce the bias due to confounding variables that could be found in an estimate of the treatment effect obtained from simply comparing outcomes among units that received the treatment versus those that did not. (wikipedia.org)

**estimation**- A fast scoring algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation in unbalanced mixed models with nested random effects. (springer.com)
- Estimation Procedures & Comparing Models: These procedures are identical to those used in multilevel analysis where subjects are clustered in groups. (wikipedia.org)
- One reaction was: "This paper and the instructive controversial over FEVD have shown me that my econometrics training had not - as I once assumed - taught me all that there is to know about fixed effects estimation. (wikipedia.org)

**model**- Approximations to the log-likelihood function in the nonlinear mixed-effects model. (springer.com)
- By the end of the module, you will be able to theorize about conditional indirect effect models on SPSS and to test which path of the mediation model is affected by the moderator. (coursera.org)
- A mixed model is a statistical model containing both fixed effects and random effects. (wikipedia.org)
- Having nested random effects in a model is the same thing as having nested variation in a model. (wikipedia.org)
- However, one point to note is that time-related predictors must be explicitly entered into the model to evaluate trend analyses and to obtain an overall test of the repeated measure. (wikipedia.org)
- Modeling Non-Linear Trends (Polynomial Models): Non-linear trends (quadratic, cubic, etc.) may be evaluated in MLM by adding the products of Time (TimeXTime, TimeXTimeXTime etc.) as either random or fixed effects to the model. (wikipedia.org)
- Somewhat controversially they argue that a particular form of the random effects model (the with-between model or the similar Mundlak model) offers all that fixed effects can provide and more. (wikipedia.org)
- They also challenge the Fixed Effects Vector Decomposition (FEVD) model of Plumper and Troeger. (wikipedia.org)
- to "You can and should use a well-specified random effects model. (wikipedia.org)
- Working with Andy Bell, he has argued that the multilevel model (in the form of the hierarchical-age-period-cohort (HAPC) model) is not an automatic solution to the identification problem of the age period cohort model. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2005, Andrew Gelman proposed a different approach of ANOVA, viewed as a multilevel model. (wikipedia.org)

**adverse**- Some D.A.R.E.-by-Community interactions were observed: urban and rural communities showed some benefits, while suburban areas experienced small adverse effects from participation. (druglibrary.org)
- PMID 22084504 P. D. Donnelly, "Explaining the Glasgow effect: could adverse childhood experiences play a role? (wikipedia.org)
- Do adverse experiences such as chronic psychological stress, trauma, racism, or shame influence health and if so, what are the biological mechanisms of these effects? (wikipedia.org)

**structural**- Both multilevel modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling were used in the analysis. (scielosp.org)
- In his writings on Coleman, Peter Marsden notes that "Coleman made influential contributions that range across the sociology of education, policy research, mathematical sociology, network/structural analysis, and sociological theory" and "ranks among the most influential sociologists of the twentieth century. (wikipedia.org)

**Characteristics**- The possibility of bias arises because the apparent difference in outcome between these two groups of units may depend on characteristics that affected whether or not a unit received a given treatment instead of due to the effect of the treatment per se. (wikipedia.org)

**Child mortality in India**- 2004. Child mortality in India: the community-level effect of education. (iussp.org)

**theoretical**- Kenneth Bruffee performed a theoretical analysis on the state of higher education in America. (wikipedia.org)

**variables**- The results indicate that D.A.R.E. had no long-term effects on a wide range of drug use measures, nor did it show a lasting impact on hypothesized mediating variables, with one exception. (druglibrary.org)
- Dependent Variable: Dichotomous dependent variables may be analyzed with multilevel analysis by using more specialized analysis (i.e. using the logit or probit link functions). (wikipedia.org)
- In statistics, the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is an extension of the one-way ANOVA that examines the influence of two different categorical independent variables on one continuous dependent variable. (wikipedia.org)

**Neighborhood**- Neighborhood effects on educational attainment: A multilevel analysis of the influence of pupil ability, family, school, and neighborhood. (springer.com)

**variance components**- Random Effects: Random effects are the variance components that arise from measuring the relationship of the predictors to Y for each subject separately. (wikipedia.org)

**processes**- Methods for examining collaborative learning processes include conversation analysis and statistical discourse analysis. (wikipedia.org)
- Several academic programs combine a broad definition of "environmental studies" with analyses of social processes, biological considerations, and the physical environment. (wikipedia.org)

**models**- Marginalized multilevel models and likelihood inference. (springer.com)
- By the end of this course, you will understand the differences between mediation and moderation and between moderated mediation and mediated moderation models (conditional indirect effects), and the importance of multilevel analysis. (coursera.org)
- Most important, you will be able to run mediation, moderation, conditional indirect effect and multilevel models and interpret the results. (coursera.org)
- Now that you know more about mediation and moderation, let's take a look at conditional indirect effects models, which are a combination of mediation and moderation models. (coursera.org)
- Again, the starting point for moderated mediation models is the indirect effect. (coursera.org)
- Because of their advantage in dealing with missing values, mixed effects models are often preferred over more traditional approaches such as repeated measures ANOVA. (wikipedia.org)
- Ronald Fisher introduced random effects models to study the correlations of trait values between relatives. (wikipedia.org)
- He and colleagues argue that group-mean centering in multilevel models can be a useful procedure in random coefficient models, thereby disagreeing that it is a 'dangerous' procedure. (wikipedia.org)

**indirect effect**- is to theorize about the indirect effect. (coursera.org)
- So here we are looking at the indirect effect. (coursera.org)

**differences**- Unlike RM-ANOVA, multilevel analysis allows the use of continuous predictors (rather than only categorical), and these predictors may or may not account for individual differences in the intercepts as well as for differences in slopes. (wikipedia.org)

**ANOVA**- This characteristic of multilevel modeling makes it preferable to other repeated measures statistical techniques such as repeated measures-analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) for certain research questions. (wikipedia.org)
- The two-way ANOVA not only aims at assessing the main effect of each independent variable but also if there is any interaction between them. (wikipedia.org)

**research**- According to Research and Analysis Working Group (RAWG, MKUKUTA Monitoring System & Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, 2009), over 70% of the annual budget of education in Mainland Tanzania is allocated to basic education activities, of which more than 50% is spent on primary education. (scielo.org.za)
- In the area of gender inequality, his research (with Matt Huffman) has addressed occupational segregation and gender devaluation and the effects of women in workplace management positions. (wikipedia.org)
- Salutogenesis David Walsh, Glasgow Centre for Population Health, 2010: "[R]ecent research has highlighted the existence of a 'Scottish effect', a term used to describe the higher levels of poor health experienced in Scotland over and above that explained by socio-economic circumstances. (wikipedia.org)

**random**- In the 1950s, Charles Roy Henderson provided best linear unbiased estimates (BLUE) of fixed effects and best linear unbiased predictions (BLUP) of random effects. (wikipedia.org)
- In other words, nested variation is often another way of saying nested random effects or nested sources of noise. (wikipedia.org)
- If the factors "wafers" and "sites" are treated as random effects, then it is possible to estimate a variance component due to each source of variation through analysis of variance techniques. (wikipedia.org)

**Scale**- Critical analysis of 2 nurse perception instruments: the Index of Work Satisfaction and the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, interpretation of these analyses is dependent on the scale of the time variable (i.e. how it is coded). (wikipedia.org)

**family**- 2007. A fixed-effects multilevel analysis of how community family structure affects individual mortality in Norway. (iussp.org)

**educational**- 2007). The effects of educational reversals on first births in sub-Saharan Africa: A dynamic multilevel perspective. (iussp.org)

**Glasgow**- Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status? (ebscohost.com)
- The Glasgow effect refers to the unexplained poor health and low life expectancy of residents of Glasgow, Scotland, compared to the rest of the United Kingdom and Europe. (wikipedia.org)
- The Glasgow effect: useful construct or epidemiological dead end? (wikipedia.org)

**Several**- Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the effect, including vitamin D deficiency, cold winters, higher levels of poverty than the figures suggest, high levels of stress, and social alienation. (wikipedia.org)

**estimate**- A randomized longitudinal field experiment was conducted to estimate the short- and long-term effects of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education program (D.A.R.E.) on students attitudes, beliefs, social skills, and drug use behaviors. (druglibrary.org)

**hypotheses**- Hypotheses include vitamin D deficiency caused by lack of sunlight, more poverty than the figures suggest, cold winters, high levels of stress, a culture of alienation, and pessimism brought on by the lingering effects of industrialisation and the city's more recent deindustrialisation. (wikipedia.org)
- To ensure identifiability of parameters, we can add the following "sum-to-zero" constraints: ∑ i α i = ∑ j β j = ∑ i ∑ j γ i j = 0 {\displaystyle \sum _{i}\alpha _{i}=\sum _{j}\beta _{j}=\sum _{i}\sum _{j}\gamma _{ij}=0} In the classical approach, testing null hypotheses (that the factors have no effect) is achieved via their significance which requires calculating sums of squares. (wikipedia.org)

**intervention**- Training diabetes care teams had no effect on HbA 1c levels (intervention effect 0.01, 95% confidence interval −0.02 to 0.04, P=0.5), even after adjusting for age and sex of the participants. (bmj.com)

**community**- 2002. Education and fertility in sub-Saharan Africa: Individual and community effects. (iussp.org)

**Results**- Results: The simultaneous hospital group- and individual-level analysis showed individual exposure to fluoroquinolones and collective exposure to penicillins to be associated with MRSA isolation after adjustment for colonization pressure and other potential confounders. (uantwerpen.be)
- Adjustment for the time interval between the two visits had little effect on the results. (uva.nl)

**important**- He has argued that quantitative analysis in the form of quantitative geography has an important role in emancipatory human geography (see critical geography). (wikipedia.org)

**among**- The Effect of Support for Action Against the Tobacco Industry on Smoking Among Young Adults. (ebscohost.com)
- Asadullah and Yalonetzky (2012) and Shindler and Fleisch (2007) among others, provide detailed analysis of inter-state/province disparity in terms of access to primary education vis-à-vis state/province development in India and South Africa. (scielo.org.za)

**provide**- We will walk you through the steps of conducting multilevel analyses using a real dataset and provide articles and templates designed to facilitate your learning. (coursera.org)

**University**- The treatment effect estimated by simply comparing a particular outcome-rate of cancer or lifetime earnings-between those who smoked and did not smoke or attended university and did not attend university would be biased by any factors that predict smoking or university attendance, respectively. (wikipedia.org)

**time**- Furthermore, multilevel modeling also allows time-varying covariates. (wikipedia.org)

**Changes**- Multilevel analysis was used to assess the effect of dental extractions on changes in anthropometric measurements after dental treatment. (uva.nl)

**programs**- Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effect that detection of chronic disease via health screening programs has on health behaviors, particularly smoking. (ebscohost.com)

**factors**- The experimental design is balanced if each treatment has the same number of replicates, K {\displaystyle K} . In such a case, the design is also said to be orthogonal, allowing to fully distinguish the effects of both factors. (wikipedia.org)

**particular**- In particular, the paper investigates the effects of pupil-teacher ratio (PTR), pupil-latrine ratio (PLR), pupil-classroom ratio (PCR), availability of electricity in schools, and secondary school and above education of women and men aged 15-49 years on the percentage of students passing the PSLE. (scielo.org.za)

**short**- Previously documented short-terms effects had dissipated by the conclusion of the study. (druglibrary.org)
- Reactions to this critique include "may the Saints & Angels protect us from ever having a paper this thoroughly dismantled" and "Seriously though, if you are interested in multilevel modelling I highly recommend this short, instructive and frankly rather sassy paper. (wikipedia.org)

**study**- The objective of this study was to assess the effects of extraction of severely decayed pulpally involved primary teeth on weight and height in underweight preschool Filipino children. (uva.nl)

**general**- The Surgeon General reports that positive effects have been demonstrated regarding attitudes towards the police. (wikipedia.org)