• murine
  • In murine models, it was established that IL-15 is responsible for the development, maintenance, and expansion of CTL, NK, and NKT cells ( 7 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • cells
  • Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are typically differentiated in vitro with interferon (IFN)-γ and αCD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), followed by the repeated provision of interleukin (IL)-2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-2 has essential roles in key functions of the immune system, tolerance and immunity, primarily via its direct effects on T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, it was named IL-9 based on its biological effects on both myeloid and lymphoid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of interleukins are synthesized by helper CD4 T lymphocytes, as well as through monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name is something of a relic, though (the term was coined by Dr Vern Paetkau, University of Victoria) it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of body cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, when mice with this genetic deletion have wild-type neural precursor cells injected into their hippocampus and these cells are allowed to mature into astrocytes containing the interleukin-1 receptors, the mice exhibit normal hippocampal-dependent memory function, and partial restoration of long-term potentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors, which include interleukin 2 (IL2), are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T cells, and have various physiological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This initial hydroperoxide product is extremely short-lived in cells: if not otherwise metabolized, it is rapidly reduced to 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15-Lipooxygenase-2: Cells also used 15-lipoxygenase 2 (i.e. 15-LOX-2 or ALOX15B) to make 15(S)-HpETE and 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloxygenase: Cells can use prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (i.e. cyclooxygenenase-1 or COX-1) and Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) to metabolize arachidonic acid primarily to prostaglandins but also to small amounts of 11(R)-HETE and a racemic mixture of 15-HETEs composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Interleukin 11 is a stromal cell-derived cytokine that belongs to a family of pleiotropic and redundant cytokines that use the gp130 transducing subunit in their high affinity receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-2 mediates its effects by binding to IL-2 receptors, which are expressed by lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin receptors on astrocytes in the hippocampus are also known to be involved in the development of spatial memories in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonic
  • Morphological examination of rat intestinal tissues after treatment with LD of CPT-11 revealed dramatic protection of duodenal and colonic tissue architecture by IL-15. (biomedsearch.com)
  • modulation
  • A rat model with dose-limiting toxicity profiles that are similar to those observed in patients treated with CPT-11 was developed and used to evaluate the role of interleukin 15 (IL-15) in the modulation of the therapeutic selectivity of CPT-11 in normal rats and rats bearing advanced colorectal cancer. (biomedsearch.com)
  • asthma
  • Pitrakinra is associated with few adverse effect, whether administered by subcutaneous injection or by inhalation in participants with atopic asthma or atopic eczema. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • It is suggested that this property allows IL-15 to be produced by one cell, endocytosed by another cell, and then presented to a third party cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The clinical significance and impact of interleukin 15 on keratinocyte cell growth and migration. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Interleukin 9, also known as IL-9, is a pleiotropic cytokine (cell signalling molecule) belonging to the group of interleukins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various cell types metabolize arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HpETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cell types (e.g. platelets) metabolize arachidonic acid to the stereoisomer of 15(S)-HpETE, 15(R)-HpETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • IL-1RA is an agent that binds non-productively to the cell surface interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), the same receptor that binds interleukin 1 (IL-1), preventing IL-1 from sending a signal to that cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • The main results offer reassurance that the ATI had no long-term negative effects for participants-as articulated in an accompanying NIAID press release titled NIH Study Supports Use of Short-Term HIV Treatment Interruption in Clinical Trials -but there are some possible safety concerns that the data does not address. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • We found that treatment with interleukin-15 complex (IL-15C) prevented ECM, whereas IL-2C treatment had no effect. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist is used in horses for the treatment of equine lameness secondary to joint and soft-tissue injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • The further investigation could be done to conclude another probability, that, the in vivo overexpression of IL-9 might show the unique symptoms related to eosinophilia which was recently reported for Interleukin 5 positive cases of HD. (wikipedia.org)