• outbreak
  • But if all you know of Ebola is from The Hot Zone or Outbreak , well, that's not really what Ebola looks like. (aetiologyblog.com)
  • Margaret Chan, WHO director, admitted that the Ebola outbreak in West Africa is so large, severe and difficult to contain because of poverty. (blogspot.com)
  • The Ebola outbreak, which is the largest in history that we know about, is merely a reflection of the public health crisis in Africa, and it's about the lack of staff, stuff and systems that could protect populations, particularly those living in poverty, from outbreaks like this or other public health threats. (blogspot.com)
  • Long before the latest outbreak of Ebola, inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. (blogspot.com)
  • viral
  • Although viral antigen is detected only in alveolar macrophages of both species, there is remarkable difference in the type and quantity of cells infiltrating the lungs between the pigs and macaques. (medcraveonline.com)
  • The social history of viruses describes the influence of viruses and viral infections on human history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rare epidemics of viral diseases originating in animals would have been short-lived because the viruses were not fully adapted to humans and the human populations were too small to maintain the chains of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although viral architecture is very complex, every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid.Most animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid envelope, a bilayered membrane analogous to a cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is the first time an influenza virus has been identified in bats, but in its current form the virus is not a human health issue," said Dr. Suxiang Tong, team lead of the Pathogen Discovery Program in CDC's Division of Viral Diseases and lead author of the study. (wordpress.com)
  • bacteria
  • New species of human virus are still being identified, at a rate of three or four per year (see below), and viruses make up over two-thirds of all new human pathogens [ 2 ], a highly significant over-representation given that most human pathogen species are bacteria, fungi or helminths. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The global transport of animals and animal products, which includes hundreds of species of wildlife, also provides safe passage for the harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi they carry, not to mention the prion proteins that cause insidious illnesses such as mad cow disease and chronic wasting disease in deer and elk. (kashvet.org)
  • Smallpox
  • There were voluntary committees of citizens in each of the American colonies who gave time and resources to see that immunization against smallpox virus by early use of the relatively new Edward Jenner technique of using "cowpox" exposure to immunize against a much more deadly pathogen. (longerhealthylife.net)
  • herpes
  • The infected cell polypeptide 0 (ICP0) from Bovine herpes virus can interact with IRF3 and induce its proteasome-dependent degradation [ 12 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • antigen
  • This recognition leads to the expression of cytokines, chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules that eliminate pathogens like viruses for the activation of antigen presenting cells and for the activation of specific adaptive response [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • immune
  • These processes are associated with the production of antigenic proteins that make the virus vulnerable to immune control mechanisms 'warning' the host of the presence of an invader [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The present review will highlight the different complex mechanisms associated with the host immune evasion by the viruses with special reference to the Classical Swine Fever Virus. (intechopen.com)
  • There are certain cellular components which are manipulated by viruses to evade the innate immune response. (intechopen.com)
  • Viruses with lipid envelopes have a greater ability to adhere to cell membranes and to avoid destruction by the immune system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • natural
  • Nonetheless, a study of currently recognized 'species' is a natural starting point for attempts to characterize and interpret patterns of virus diversity. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The viruses were later carried to the New World by Europeans during the time of the Spanish Conquests, but the indigenous people had no natural resistance to the viruses and millions of them died during epidemics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Michigan 02/29/12 minbcnews.com: The statewide ban on feral swine is scheduled to take effect on April 1, but Department of Natural Resources officials say the industry could still be saved if the legislature passes a law regulating the industry before then. (wordpress.com)
  • machinery
  • Viruses are considered as extremely successful predators as they can replicate and control the host cell synthesizing machinery. (intechopen.com)
  • least
  • All told, there have been at least 7 cases of Lassa fever imported into the United States-and those are just the ones we know about, who were sick enough to be hospitalized, and whose symptoms and travel history alerted doctors to take samples and contact the CDC. (aetiologyblog.com)
  • people
  • In about 9000 BC, when many people began to settle on the fertile flood plains of the River Nile, the population became dense enough for the virus to maintain a constant presence because of the high concentration of susceptible people. (wikipedia.org)
  • These scientists are highly trained and very careful, just like people treating these Ebola patients and working out all the logistics of their arrival and transport will be. (aetiologyblog.com)
  • proteins
  • Viruses encode homologs of complement regulatory proteins that are secreted and block complement activation and neutralization of virus particles. (intechopen.com)
  • Although
  • Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although scientific interest in them arose because of the diseases they cause, most viruses are beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • wild
  • Some are wild boar and some are simply domestic pigs that escaped into the wild and interbred with the wild boar. (wordpress.com)
  • So why not just ban the swine in the wild, but leave the gaming operations alone? (wordpress.com)
  • treatment
  • It's odd to see otherwise pretty rational folks getting nervous about the news that the American Ebola patients are being flown back to the United States for treatment . (aetiologyblog.com)
  • original
  • As many as four million feral swine (both the original boar and the pigs that have interbred with them) may now populate the U.S., but most are in the South, Texas in particular. (wordpress.com)
  • spread
  • This agricultural revolution embraced the development of monoculture and presented an opportunity for the rapid spread of several species of plant viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The divergence and spread of sobemoviruses - southern bean mosaic virus - date from this time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like Ebola, Lassa is spread human to human via contact with blood and other body fluids. (aetiologyblog.com)
  • animal
  • Methods of using azide-modified biomolecules, such as fatty acids, carbohydrates and lipids, to treat a plant, an insect or an animal infected with a virus or to inhibit infectivity of a virus, such as the human immunodeficiency virus, are provided. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The study is important because the research has identified a new animal species that may act as a source of flu viruses. (wordpress.com)
  • Several
  • Several recent studies revealed that infected pigs can efficiently transmit ZEBOV to non-human primates in conditions resembling farm setting. (medcraveonline.com)
  • cells
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • nature
  • The nature of viruses remained unknown until the invention of the electron microscope in the 1930s, when the science of virology gained momentum. (wikipedia.org)