• formulary
  • This previous sentence relates to how the administrator of the drug insurance designs the deductible/co-pay/formulary/donut-hole/pharmacy-preference aspects of each plan and has no direct relevance to the beneficiary. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), "PBMs are primarily responsible for developing and maintaining the formulary, contracting with pharmacies, negotiating discounts and rebates with drug manufacturers, and processing and paying prescription drug claims. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, Express Scripts and CVS Caremark transitioned from using tiered formularies, to ones that began excluding drugs from their formulary. (wikipedia.org)
  • World Health Organ
  • According to position papers on the treatment of opioid dependence published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the World Health Organization, care providers should not treat opioid use disorder as the result of a weak character or will. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biopharmaceutics Classi
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) Biopharmaceutics Classification System - by solubility and intestinal permeability For the UK legal classification, see Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act For the US legal classification, see Controlled Substances Act § Schedules of controlled substances Pregnancy category is defined using a variety of systems by different jurisdictions Mahoney A, Evans J (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • Large prescription databases (the IMS Vector One: National and Total Patient Tracker) were used to examine national drug utilization patterns for the US pediatric population (ages 0-17 years) from 2002 through 2010. (aappublications.org)
  • Analysis of pediatric drug utilization trends for the top 12 therapeutic areas in 2010 compared with 2002 showed decreases in systemic antibiotics (-14%), allergies (-61%), pain (-14%), depression (-5%), and cough/cold without expectorant (-42%) prescriptions, whereas asthma (14%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (46%), and contraceptive (93%) prescriptions increased. (aappublications.org)
  • Changes in the patterns of pediatric drug utilization were observed from 2002 to 2010. (aappublications.org)
  • Pharmacy
  • Information on drug use was obtained from the IADB.nl database, which contains pharmacy-dispensing data from community pharmacies in the Netherlands. (springer.com)
  • After the patient, drug, and prescriber information has been entered (often by a technician or pharmacy intern), the prescription is double checked (by a registered pharmacist) to ensure the information was entered accurately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacy Management is used to change drug locations, lookup pharmacy staff information, generate reports, and complete miscellaneous tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a program that assists pharmacy staff members in enrolling patients in the Prescription Savings Club (PSC) and consulting Medicare beneficiaries in selecting a Medicare Prescription Drug (Part D) Plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, a pharmacy benefit manager (PBM) is a third-party administrator (TPA) of prescription drug programs for commercial health plans, self-insured employer plans, Medicare Part D plans, the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program, and state government employee plans. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • verification needed] The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC), the most widely used drug classification system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, which is an alphanumeric code that assigns it to specific drug classes within the ATC system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, one might argue that the class of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) is composed by one element ("disease-modifying") that albeit vaguely designates a mechanism of action, and one element ("anti-rheumatic drug") that indicates its therapeutic use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guidelines
  • However, international guidelines and national regulations for the diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB seldom provide unbiased sources of information on monitoring drug use, side effects, or indicators to assess the quality of prescribing according to the regulations. (msh.org)
  • SIAPS will also continue to solicit feedback from the Kenya Drug Resistant TB program to revise and finalize the generic MDR-TB guidelines. (msh.org)
  • adverse
  • Recommendations included conducting audiometric testing (as some second-line drugs can cause hearing loss) and cardiac monitoring, and decreasing turn-around-times on thyroid test results (to ensure timely adjustments to patient medications to better manage the adverse reactions). (msh.org)
  • Several of these drugs are classified as potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) for elderly people due to their increased risk for causing adverse drug reactions (ADR). (egms.de)
  • Women living in poverty-stricken areas are more likely to be obese and engage in unhealthy behaviors such as cigarette smoking and drug use, are less likely to engage in or even have access to legitimate prenatal care, and are at a significantly higher risk for adverse outcomes for both the mother and child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Now a web-based version, the Drug Trend Report is developed and published by the Express Scripts Research & New Solutions Lab with contributors from researchers, clinicians and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introduction to drug utilization research (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another important area of research was the development of epidemiological methods of studying the extent and nature of drug-related problems and the evaluation of the reliability and validity of various indicators. (wikipedia.org)
  • He established the International Centre for Drug Policy at St George's University of London and over the years attracted substantial funding for research programmes and projects in psychiatry, mental health, addictions and medical education. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis
  • and medical and drug data analysis services to manage drug plans for health plans, self-insured employers and government agencies (both as administrator of employee benefits and public assistance programs). (wikipedia.org)
  • health
  • 3) by the number of days of treatment per year, calculated based both on DDDs (Defined Daily Dose, i.e. the World Health Organisation standard for the daily intake of a drug) and PDDs. (springer.com)
  • 37(11):1128-1139 http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/08/080108.medicare.shtml http://abcnews.go.com/Health/top-selling-drugs-coming-off-patent-paving-cheaper/story?id=13048629 Yin W, Basu A, Zhang JX, Rabbani A, Meltzer DO, Alexander GC. (wikipedia.org)
  • His multicentre European studies on drugs and mental health and "Treat 2000" are contributing to the understanding of drug-related psychosis and treatment outcome of opioid addictions. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) - includes a section devoted to drug classification Examples of drug classes that are based on chemical structures include: β-lactam antibiotic Benzodiazepine Cardiac glycoside Fibrate Thiazide diuretic Drug classes that share a common molecular mechanism of action by modulating the activity of a specific biological target. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Other recreational drugs include hallucinogens, opiates and amphetamines and some of these are also used in spiritual or religious settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some drugs used as entheogens include kava which can act as a stimulant, a sedative, a euphoriant and an anesthetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Types
  • In several dominant drug classification systems, these four types of classifications form a hierarchy. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical structures
  • A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • provides
  • A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • formularies
  • The incentive is also often implemented via a system of tiered formularies in which some brand-name drugs are less expensive than others and not subject to step therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • From the literature, drug use monitoring criteria and indicators were selected for each anti-MDR TB drug, and then data collection forms were developed. (msh.org)
  • treatment
  • Examples are given pertaining to hypnotic drug use and the treatment of schizophrenia. (ehesp.fr)
  • Successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is one of the key indicators of a TB Control Program's performance and essential to containing the emergence of anti-TB drug resistance. (msh.org)
  • Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) treatment requires medicines that are expensive, involve longer treatment regimens, are toxic, and can cause patients to have severe side effects. (msh.org)
  • addiction
  • Some drugs can cause addiction and all drugs can have side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of the gene transcription factor "ΔFosB" in the nucleus accumbens plays a crucial role in the development of an addiction to opioids and other addictive drugs by sensitizing drug reward and amplifying compulsive drug-seeking behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism of act
  • A group of drugs will share a similar chemical structure, or have the same mechanism of action, the same related mode of action or target the same illness or related illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the fibrates are a chemical class of drugs (amphipathic carboxylic acids) that share the same mechanism of action (PPAR agonist), mode of action (reducing blood triglycerides), and are used to prevent and to treat the same disease (atherosclerosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug class of "nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs" (NSAIDs) is thus composed by one element ("anti-inflammatory") that designates the mechanism of action, and one element ("nonsteroidal") that separates it from other drugs with that same mechanism of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • generic drugs
  • Those that are not patented (or with expired patents) are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder. (wikipedia.org)
  • year
  • The same year, the company began the annual Drug Trend Report and launched the Outcomes Symposium Conference. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Elderly patients receive the highest share of all drugs in western countries. (egms.de)
  • 60% of getABI-patients and 69% of stroke patients used five or more drugs. (egms.de)
  • 64% of the getABI-patients had at least one possible drug-drug-interaction (DDI), 22% of them used high-risk combinations. (egms.de)
  • treat
  • Conversely not all PPAR agonists are fibrates, not all triglyceride lowering agents are PPAR agonists, and not all drugs that are used to treat atherosclerosis are triglyceride lowering agents. (wikipedia.org)