• formulary
  • This previous sentence relates to how the administrator of the drug insurance designs the deductible/co-pay/formulary/donut-hole/pharmacy-preference aspects of each plan and has no direct relevance to the beneficiary. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), "PBMs are primarily responsible for developing and maintaining the formulary, contracting with pharmacies, negotiating discounts and rebates with drug manufacturers, and processing and paying prescription drug claims. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, Express Scripts and CVS Caremark transitioned from using tiered formularies, to ones that began excluding drugs from their formulary. (wikipedia.org)
  • World Health Organ
  • According to position papers on the treatment of opioid dependence published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the World Health Organization, care providers should not treat opioid use disorder as the result of a weak character or will. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biopharmaceutics Classi
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) Biopharmaceutics Classification System - by solubility and intestinal permeability For the UK legal classification, see Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act For the US legal classification, see Controlled Substances Act § Schedules of controlled substances Pregnancy category is defined using a variety of systems by different jurisdictions Mahoney A, Evans J (2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrospective
  • The second phase is a retrospective DUR and involves ongoing and periodic examinations of claims data to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, underutilization, drug-drug interaction, or medically unnecessary care, implementing corrective actions when needed. (ahdbonline.com)
  • therapeutic
  • verification needed] The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC), the most widely used drug classification system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, which is an alphanumeric code that assigns it to specific drug classes within the ATC system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, one might argue that the class of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) is composed by one element ("disease-modifying") that albeit vaguely designates a mechanism of action, and one element ("anti-rheumatic drug") that indicates its therapeutic use. (wikipedia.org)
  • reviews
  • The Board reviews drug therapy, drug studies and utilization information, thus enabling the Department to identify the most cost-effective policies for its members. (georgia.gov)
  • For proper and impartial monitoring of rational drug use, drug utilization reviews (DUR) are used to identify common problems such as inappropriate product selection, incorrect dosing, avoidable adverse drug reactions, and errors in drug dispensing and administration (see Managing Drug Supply 3: Chapter 30 , PDF). (msh.org)
  • Guidelines
  • However, international guidelines and national regulations for the diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB seldom provide unbiased sources of information on monitoring drug use, side effects, or indicators to assess the quality of prescribing according to the regulations. (msh.org)
  • SIAPS will also continue to solicit feedback from the Kenya Drug Resistant TB program to revise and finalize the generic MDR-TB guidelines. (msh.org)
  • Research
  • Now a web-based version, the Drug Trend Report is developed and published by the Express Scripts Research & New Solutions Lab with contributors from researchers, clinicians and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Introduction to drug utilization research (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • He established the International Centre for Drug Policy at St George's University of London and over the years attracted substantial funding for research programmes and projects in psychiatry, mental health, addictions and medical education. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medicare
  • This is most often implemented-as is the case for drug coverage for those not on Medicare-through incentives to use generic drugs over brand-name drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 37(11):1128-1139 http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/08/080108.medicare.shtml http://abcnews.go.com/Health/top-selling-drugs-coming-off-patent-paving-cheaper/story?id=13048629 Yin W, Basu A, Zhang JX, Rabbani A, Meltzer DO, Alexander GC. (wikipedia.org)
  • medication
  • In pharmacology, a pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being. (wikipedia.org)
  • A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Work with an existing medication within the practice, this can involve viewing details of a medication, remove a medication from the active medication list, change dose, etc., for a medication or renew one or more medications Printing prescriptions Electronically transmitting prescriptions to a transaction hub Conducting all safety checks using an integrated decision support system, known as a Drug Utilization Review. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes-groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (binding to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and that are used to treat the same disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmaceutical drugs are usually categorised into drug classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • PBMs aggregate the buying clout of enrollees through their client health plans, enabling plan sponsors and individuals to obtain lower prices for their prescription drugs through price discounts from retail pharmacies, rebates from pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the efficiencies of mail-service pharmacies. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiac
  • Recommendations included conducting audiometric testing (as some second-line drugs can cause hearing loss) and cardiac monitoring, and decreasing turn-around-times on thyroid test results (to ensure timely adjustments to patient medications to better manage the adverse reactions). (msh.org)
  • Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) - includes a section devoted to drug classification Examples of drug classes that are based on chemical structures include: β-lactam antibiotic Benzodiazepine Cardiac glycoside Fibrate Thiazide diuretic Drug classes that share a common molecular mechanism of action by modulating the activity of a specific biological target. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Other recreational drugs include hallucinogens, opiates and amphetamines and some of these are also used in spiritual or religious settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some drugs used as entheogens include kava which can act as a stimulant, a sedative, a euphoriant and an anesthetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Types
  • In several dominant drug classification systems, these four types of classifications form a hierarchy. (wikipedia.org)
  • adverse
  • Women living in poverty-stricken areas are more likely to be obese and engage in unhealthy behaviors such as cigarette smoking and drug use, are less likely to engage in or even have access to legitimate prenatal care, and are at a significantly higher risk for adverse outcomes for both the mother and child. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive drug use despite adverse consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical structures
  • A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • provides
  • A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • opioid
  • His multicentre European studies on drugs and mental health and "Treat 2000" are contributing to the understanding of drug-related psychosis and treatment outcome of opioid addictions. (wikipedia.org)
  • formularies
  • The incentive is also often implemented via a system of tiered formularies in which some brand-name drugs are less expensive than others and not subject to step therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • data
  • From the literature, drug use monitoring criteria and indicators were selected for each anti-MDR TB drug, and then data collection forms were developed. (msh.org)
  • addiction
  • Some drugs can cause addiction and all drugs can have side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of the gene transcription factor "ΔFosB" in the nucleus accumbens plays a crucial role in the development of an addiction to opioids and other addictive drugs by sensitizing drug reward and amplifying compulsive drug-seeking behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism of act
  • A group of drugs will share a similar chemical structure, or have the same mechanism of action, the same related mode of action or target the same illness or related illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the fibrates are a chemical class of drugs (amphipathic carboxylic acids) that share the same mechanism of action (PPAR agonist), mode of action (reducing blood triglycerides), and are used to prevent and to treat the same disease (atherosclerosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug class of "nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs" (NSAIDs) is thus composed by one element ("anti-inflammatory") that designates the mechanism of action, and one element ("nonsteroidal") that separates it from other drugs with that same mechanism of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health
  • 3) by the number of days of treatment per year, calculated based both on DDDs (Defined Daily Dose, i.e. the World Health Organisation standard for the daily intake of a drug) and PDDs. (springer.com)
  • treatment
  • Successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is one of the key indicators of a TB Control Program's performance and essential to containing the emergence of anti-TB drug resistance. (msh.org)
  • Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) treatment requires medicines that are expensive, involve longer treatment regimens, are toxic, and can cause patients to have severe side effects. (msh.org)
  • generic drugs
  • Those that are not patented (or with expired patents) are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder. (wikipedia.org)
  • year
  • The same year, the company began the annual Drug Trend Report and launched the Outcomes Symposium Conference. (wikipedia.org)
  • treat
  • Conversely not all PPAR agonists are fibrates, not all triglyceride lowering agents are PPAR agonists, and not all drugs that are used to treat atherosclerosis are triglyceride lowering agents. (wikipedia.org)